Graduated licensing laws by state

Learner stage Intermediate stage: restrictions on driving while unsupervised Unrestricted stage: when restrictions may be lifted
State Minimum entry age Mandatory holding period Minimum amount of supervised driving Minimum age Unsupervised driving prohibited Restriction on passengers (family members excepted unless otherwise noted) Nighttime restrictions Passenger restrictions
AL 15Footnote 1 6 monthsFootnote 1 50 hours (none with driver education) 16 midnight-6 a.m. no more than one passenger 17 and licensed for 6 months (min. age: 17) 17 and licensed for 6 months (min. age: 17)
AK 14 6 months 40 hours, 10 of which must be at night or in inclement weather 16 1 a.m.-5 a.m. no passengers younger than 21 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.) 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
AZ 15, 6 monthsFootnote 2 6 months 30 hours, 10 of which must be at night (none with driver education) 16 midnight-5 a.m. secondary enforcement no more than 1 passenger younger than 18 secondary enforcement 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.) 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
AR 14Footnote 3 6 monthsFootnote 3 none 16Footnote 4 11 p.m.-4 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 21 until age 18 (min. age: 18) until age 18 (min. age: 18)
CA 15, 6 monthsFootnote 5 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 5 11 p.m.-5 a.m. secondary enforcement no passengers younger than 20 (limited exception for immediate family) secondary enforcement 12 months after initial license (min. age: 17) 12 months after initial license (min. age: 17)
CO 15Footnote 6 12 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16 midnight-5 a.m. secondary enforcement first 6 months—no passengers; second 6 months—no more than one passenger secondary enforcement 12 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17) 12 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17)
CT 16Footnote 7 6 monthsFootnote 7 (4 months with driver education) 40 hoursFootnote 7 16, 4 monthsFootnote 7 11 p.m. - 5 a.m. first 6 months—no passengers other than parents or a driving instructor; second 6 months—no passengers other than parents, driving instructor or members of the immediate family until age 18 (min. age: 18) 12 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17, 4 mos.)
DE 16Footnote 8 6 monthsFootnote 8 50 hours, 10 of which must be at nightFootnote 8 16, 6 monthsFootnote 8 10 p.m.-6 a.m.Footnote 8 no more than 1 passengerFootnote 8 6 months or the issuance of a class D license (min. age: 17) 6 months or the issuance of a class D license (min. age: 17)
DC 16Footnote 9 6 monthsFootnote 9 40 hours in learner’s stage; 10 hours at night in intermediate stage 16, 6 monthsFootnote 10 September–June: 11 p.m.-6 a.m. Sun.–Thur., 12:01 a.m.-6 a.m. Sat.–Sun.; July–August: 12:01 a.m.-6 a.m.Footnote 10 no passengersFootnote 10 6 months or until age 21, whichever occurs first (min. age: 18)Footnote 10 6 months or until age 21, whichever occurs first (min. age: 18)Footnote 10
FL 15Footnote 11 12 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16 11 p.m.-6 a.m. for 16 year-olds; 1 a.m.-5 a.m. for 17 year-olds none until age 18 (min. age: 18) none
GA 15 12 months 40 hours, 6 of which must be at night 16Footnote 12 midnight-5 a.m. secondary enforcement first 6 months—no passengers; second 6 months—no more than 1 passenger younger than 21; thereafter, no more than 3 passengers secondary enforcement until age 18 (min. age: 18) until age 18 (min. age: 18)
HI 15, 6 months 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 13 11 p.m.-5 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 18 (household members excepted) 6 months and age 17 (min. age: 17) 6 months and age 17 (min. age: 17)
ID 14, 6 monthsFootnote 14 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 15Footnote 14 sunset to sunrise licensees 16 and younger can have no more than 1 passenger younger than 17 until age 16 (min. age: 16) 6 months or age 17 (min. age: 15, 6 mos.)
IL 15Footnote 15 9 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 16 starts 10 p.m. Sun.-Thur., 11 p.m. Fri.-Sat., ends 6 a.m. first 12 months—no more than 1 passenger younger than 20 until age 18 (min. age: 18) 12 months or until age 18 (min. age: 17)
IN 15Footnote 17 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16, 3 monthsFootnote 17 first 6 months, 10 p.m.-5 a.m.; thereafter, 11 p.m.-5 a.m. Sun.–Fri.; 1 a.m.-5 a.m. Sat.–Sun.Footnote 18 no passengersFootnote 18 6 months and age 18 or until age 21, whichever occurs first (min. age 18)Footnote 18 6 months or until age 21, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 9 or 17, 3 mos. without driver education)Footnote 18
IA 14Footnote 19 12 monthsFootnote 19 20 hours, 2 of which must be at nightFootnote 20 16Footnote 19,Footnote 20,Footnote 21 12:30 a.m.-5 a.m. parental discretion Footnote 22 12 months and age 17 or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17) none
KS 14Footnote 23 12 months 25 hours, in learner phase; 25 hours before age 16; 10 of the 50 hours must be at nightFootnote 23 16Footnote 23 9 p.m. - 5 a.m. no more than one passenger younger than 18 6 months or age 17, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.) 6 months or age 17, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
KY 16Footnote 24 6 monthsFootnote 24 60 hours, 10 of which must be at nightFootnote 24 16, 6 monthsFootnote 25 midnight-6 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 20 unless supervised by a driving instructor secondary enforcement 6 months or age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17) 6 months or age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17)
LA 15 6 months 50 hours, 15 of which must be at night 16 11 p.m. - 5 a.m. no more than one passenger younger than 21 between the hours of 6 pm-5 am; no passenger restriction from 5 am-6 pm until age 17 (min. age: 17) until age 17 (min. age: 17)
ME 15Footnote 26 6 monthsFootnote 26 70 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 26 midnight-5 a.m.Footnote 26 no passengersFootnote 26 9 months (min. age: 16, 9 mos.)Footnote 26 9 months (min. age: 16, 9 mos.)Footnote 26
MD 15, 9 monthsFootnote 27 9 monthsFootnote 28 60 hours, 10 of which must be at nightFootnote 29 16, 6 months midnight-5 a.m.Footnote 30 no passengers younger than 18Footnote 30 secondary enforcement until age 18 (min. age: 18) 5 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 11 mos.)
MA 16Footnote 31 6 monthsFootnote 31 40 hoursFootnote 32 16, 6 monthsFootnote 33 12:30 a.m.-5 a.m. (between 12:30 a.m.-1 a.m. and 4 a.m.-5 a.m. the night driving and passenger restrictions are subject to secondary enforcement; enforcement is primary at all other times) no passengers younger than 18 (between 12:30 am–1 am and 4 am–5 am the night driving and passenger restrictions are secondarily enforced; enforcement is primary at all other times) until age 18 (min. age: 18) 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17)
MI 14, 9 monthsFootnote 34 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 35 10 p.m.-5 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 21 6 months and age 17 or until age 18 (min. age 17) 6 months and age 17 or until age 18 (min. age 17)
MN 15Footnote 36 6 monthsFootnote 37 40 hours, 15 of which must be at nightFootnote 38 16Footnote 39 midnight-5 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 20; second 6 months—no more than 3 passengers younger than 20 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.) 12 months or at age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17)
MS 15 12 monthsFootnote 40 none 16Footnote 41 10 p.m.-6 a.m. Sun.-Thur., 11:30 p.m.-6 a.m. Fri.-Sat. none 6 months or age 17, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.) none
MO 15 6 months 40 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16 1 a.m.-5 a.m. first 6 months—no more than 1 passenger younger than 19; thereafter, no more than 3 passengers younger than 19 entire intermediate stage (min. age: 17, 11 mo.) entire intermediate stage (min. age: 17, 11 mo.)
MT 14, 6 monthsFootnote 42 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 15Footnote 43 11 p.m.-5 a.m. first 6 months—no more than 1 passenger younger than 18; second 6 months—no more than 3 passengers younger than 18 12 months or at age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16) 12 months or at age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16)
NE 15Footnote 44 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night (none with driver education) 16 midnight-6 a.m. secondary enforcement no more than 1 passenger younger than 19 secondary enforcement 12 months or at age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17) 6 months or age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
NV 15, 6 months 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night (none with defensive driving course) 16Footnote 45 10 p.m.-5 a.m. secondary enforcement no passengers younger than 18 secondary enforcement until age 18 (min. age: 18) 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
NH 15, 6 monthsFootnote 46 none 40 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16 1 a.m.-4 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 25 until age 18 (min. age: 18) 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
NJ 16Footnote 47 6 monthsFootnote 47 none 17Footnote 47 11 p.m. - 5 a.m. no more than 1 passenger (exception is limited to drivers' dependents) 12 months or until age 21, whichever occurs first (min. age: 18) 12 months or until age 21, whichever occurs first (min. age: 18)
NM 15Footnote 48 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 15, 6 monthsFootnote 49 midnight-5 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 21 12 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.) 12 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
NY 16 6 months 50 hours, 15 of which must be at night 16, 6 months 9 p.m.-5 a.m. except for NYC (unsupervised driving prohibited at all times) and Long Island (limited daytime unsupervised driving)Footnote 50 no more than 1 passenger younger than 21Footnote 50 until age 17 with driver education; until age 18 without (min. age: 17)Footnote 51 until age 17 with driver education; until age 18 without (min. age: 17)Footnote 51
NC 15Footnote 52,Footnote 53 12 monthsFootnote 53 60 hours, 10 of which must be at night, learner phase; 12 hours, 6 of which must be at night, intermediate phase 16Footnote 54,Footnote 55 9 p.m.-5 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 21; if a family member younger than 21 is already a passenger then no other passengers younger than 21 who are not family members 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.) 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
ND 14 <16: 12 months; 16: 6 months or until age 18, whichever comes first <16: 50 hours; ≥ 16: none 16; 15 for a parent requested restricted licenseFootnote 56 The holder of a restricted license may only drive a car belonging to a parent or guardian and may not drive between the later of sunset or 9 p.m. and 5 a.m. none until age 16 (min. age: 16) none
OH 15, 6 months 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 57 midnight-6 a.m. (first 12 months), 1 a.m.-5 a.m. (second 12 months) secondary enforcement first 12 months—no more than 1 passenger 24 months (min. age: 18) 12 months (min. age: 17)
OK 15, 6 monthsFootnote 58 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at nightFootnote 59 16 10 p.m.-5 a.m. no more than 1 passengerFootnote 60 6 months with driver education, 12 months without or until age 18 (min age: 16, 6 mos.) 6 months with driver education, 12 months without or until age 18 (min age: 16, 6 mos.)
OR 15 6 months 50 hoursFootnote 61(100 hours without driver education) 16Footnote 61 midnight-5 a.m. first 6 months–no passengers younger than 20; second 6 months–no more than 3 passengers younger than 20 12 months or age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17) 12 months or age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17)
PA 16 6 months 65 hours, 10 of which must be at night and 5 of which must be in inclement weather 16, 6 months 11 p.m.-5 a.m. first 6 months— no more than 1 passenger younger than 18; thereafter, no more than 3 passengers 12 months and age 17 if completed driver education or age 18 (min. age: 17) 12 months and age 17 if completed driver education or age 18 (min. age: 17)
RI 16Footnote 62 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16, 6 monthsFootnote 63 1 a.m.-5 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 21 12 months or age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17, 6 mos.) 12 months or age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17, 6 mos.)
SC 15 6 months 40 hours, 10 of which must be at night 15, 6 months 6 p.m.-6 a.m. EST; 8 p.m.-6 a.m. EDT no more than 2 passengers younger than 21 unless transporting students to and from school 12 months and age 17 if intermediate license has been held for at least 6 months (min. age: 16, 6 mos.) 12 months and age 17 if intermediate license has been held for at least 6 months (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
SD 14Footnote 64 6 months (3 months with driver education) noneFootnote 64 14, 6 months (14, 3 months with driver education) 10 p.m.-6 a.m. none until age 16 (min. age: 16) none
TN 15Footnote 65 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at nightFootnote 65 16 11 p.m.-6 a.m. no more than 1 passenger 12 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17) 12 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17)
TX 15Footnote 66 6 months 30 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 67 midnight-5 a.m. secondary enforcement no more than 1 passenger younger than 21 secondary enforcement until age 18 (min. age: 18) until age 18 (min. age: 18)
UT 15Footnote 68 6 months 40 hours, 10 of which must be at nightFootnote 68,Footnote 69 16Footnote 70 midnight-5 a.m. no passengers secondary enforcement until age 17 (min. age: 17) 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
VT 15 12 months 40 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 71 none first 3 months—no passengers without exception; second 3 months—no passengers secondary enforcement none 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
VA 15, 6 monthsFootnote 72 9 monthsFootnote 72 45 hours, 15 of which must be at night 16, 3 monthsFootnote 73 midnight-4 a.m. Footnote 72 secondary enforcement first 12 months—no more than 1 passenger younger than 21; thereafter, no more than 3 passengers younger than 21 secondary enforcement until age 18 (min. age: 18) until age 18 (min. age: 18)
WA 15Footnote 74 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 75 1 a.m.-5 a.m. secondary enforcement first 6 months—no passengers younger than 20; second 6 months—no more than 3 passengers younger than 20 secondary enforcement 12 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17) 12 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17)Footnote 76
WV 15Footnote 77 6 monthsFootnote 77 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night (none with driver education) 16 10 p.m. - 5 a.m. first 6 months—no passengers younger than 20; second 6 months–no more than 1 passenger younger than 20 12 months and age 17 or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17) 12 months and age 17 or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17)
WI 15, 6 monthsFootnote 78 6 monthsFootnote 78 30 hours, 10 of which must be at nightFootnote 78 16Footnote 79 midnight-5 a.m. no more than 1 passenger 9 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 9 mos.) 9 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 9 mos.)
WY 15 10 days 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 80 11 p.m.-5 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 18 6 months or until age 17, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)Footnote 80 6 months or until age 17, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)Footnote 80