Graduated licensing laws by state

Learner stage Intermediate stage: restrictions on driving while unsupervised Unrestricted stage: when restrictions may be lifted
State Minimum entry age Mandatory holding period Minimum amount of supervised driving Minimum age Unsupervised driving prohibited Restriction on passengers (family members excepted unless otherwise noted) Nighttime restrictions Passenger restrictions
AL 15Footnote 1 6 monthsFootnote 1 50 hours (none with driver education) 16 midnight-6 a.m. no more than one passenger 17 and licensed for 6 months (min. age: 17) 17 and licensed for 6 months (min. age: 17)
AK 14 6 months 40 hours, 10 of which must be at night or in inclement weather 16 1 a.m.-5 a.m. no passengers younger than 21 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.) 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
AZ 15, 6 monthsFootnote 2 6 months 30 hours, 10 of which must be at night (none with driver education) 16 midnight-5 a.m. secondary enforcement no more than 1 passenger younger than 18 secondary enforcement 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.) 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
AR 14Footnote 3 6 monthsFootnote 3 none 16Footnote 4 11 p.m.-4 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 21 until age 18 (min. age: 18) until age 18 (min. age: 18)
CA 15, 6 monthsFootnote 5 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 5 11 p.m.-5 a.m. secondary enforcement no passengers younger than 20 (limited exception for immediate family) secondary enforcement 12 months after initial license (min. age: 17) 12 months after initial license (min. age: 17)
CO 15Footnote 6 12 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16 midnight-5 a.m. secondary enforcement first 6 months—no passengers; second 6 months—no more than one passenger secondary enforcement 12 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17) 12 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17)
CT 16Footnote 7 6 monthsFootnote 7 (4 months with driver education) 40 hoursFootnote 7 16, 4 monthsFootnote 7 11 p.m. - 5 a.m. first 6 months—no passengers other than parents or a driving instructor; second 6 months—no passengers other than parents, driving instructor or members of the immediate family until age 18 (min. age: 18) 12 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17, 4 mos.)
DE 16Footnote 8 6 monthsFootnote 8 50 hours, 10 of which must be at nightFootnote 8 16, 6 monthsFootnote 8 10 p.m.-6 a.m.Footnote 8 no more than 1 passengerFootnote 8 6 months or the issuance of a class D license (min. age: 17) 6 months or the issuance of a class D license (min. age: 17)
DC 16Footnote 9 6 monthsFootnote 9 40 hours in learner’s stage; 10 hours at night in intermediate stage 16, 6 monthsFootnote 10 September–June: 11 p.m.-6 a.m. Sun.–Thur., 12:01 a.m.-6 a.m. Sat.–Sun.; July–August: 12:01 a.m.-6 a.m.Footnote 10 no passengersFootnote 10 6 months or until age 21, whichever occurs first (min. age: 18)Footnote 10 6 months or until age 21, whichever occurs first (min. age: 18)Footnote 10
FL 15Footnote 11 12 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16 11 p.m.-6 a.m. for 16 year-olds; 1 a.m.-5 a.m. for 17 year-olds none until age 18 (min. age: 18) none
GA 15 12 months 40 hours, 6 of which must be at night 16Footnote 12 midnight-5 a.m. secondary enforcement first 6 months—no passengers; second 6 months—no more than 1 passenger younger than 21; thereafter, no more than 3 passengers secondary enforcement until age 18 (min. age: 18) until age 18 (min. age: 18)
HI 15, 6 months 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 13 11 p.m.-5 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 18 (household members excepted) 6 months and age 17 (min. age: 17) 6 months and age 17 (min. age: 17)
ID 14, 6 monthsFootnote 14 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 15Footnote 14 sunset to sunrise licensees 16 and younger can have no more than 1 passenger younger than 17 until age 16 (min. age: 16) 6 months or age 17 (min. age: 15, 6 mos.)
IL 15Footnote 15 9 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 16 starts 10 p.m. Sun.-Thur., 11 p.m. Fri.-Sat., ends 6 a.m. first 12 months—no more than 1 passenger younger than 20 until age 18 (min. age: 18) 12 months or until age 18 (min. age: 17)
IN 15Footnote 17 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16, 3 monthsFootnote 17 first 6 months, 10 p.m.-5 a.m.; thereafter, 11 p.m.-5 a.m. Sun.–Fri.; 1 a.m.-5 a.m. Sat.–Sun.Footnote 18 no passengersFootnote 18 6 months and age 18 or until age 21, whichever occurs first (min. age 18)Footnote 18 6 months or until age 21, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 9 or 17, 3 mos. without driver education)Footnote 18
IA 14Footnote 19 12 monthsFootnote 19 20 hours, 2 of which must be at nightFootnote 20 16Footnote 19,Footnote 20,Footnote 21 12:30 a.m.-5 a.m. parental discretion Footnote 22 12 months and age 17 or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17) none
KS 14Footnote 23 12 months 25 hours, in learner phase; 25 hours before age 16; 10 of the 50 hours must be at nightFootnote 23 16Footnote 23 9 p.m. - 5 a.m. no more than one passenger younger than 18 6 months or age 17, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.) 6 months or age 17, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
KY 16Footnote 24 6 monthsFootnote 24 60 hours, 10 of which must be at nightFootnote 24 16, 6 monthsFootnote 25 midnight-6 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 20 unless supervised by a driving instructor secondary enforcement 6 months or age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17) 6 months or age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17)
LA 15Footnote 26 6 months 50 hours, 15 of which must be at night 16Footnote 26 11 p.m. - 5 a.m. no more than one passenger younger than 21 between the hours of 6 pm-5 am; no passenger restriction from 5 am-6 pm until age 17 (min. age: 17) until age 17 (min. age: 17)
ME 15Footnote 27 6 monthsFootnote 27 70 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 27 midnight-5 a.m.Footnote 27 no passengersFootnote 27 9 months (min. age: 16, 9 mos.)Footnote 27 9 months (min. age: 16, 9 mos.)Footnote 27
MD 15, 9 monthsFootnote 28 9 monthsFootnote 29 60 hours, 10 of which must be at nightFootnote 30 16, 6 months midnight-5 a.m.Footnote 31 no passengers younger than 18Footnote 31 secondary enforcement until age 18 (min. age: 18) 5 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 11 mos.)
MA 16Footnote 32 6 monthsFootnote 32 40 hoursFootnote 33 16, 6 monthsFootnote 34 12:30 a.m.-5 a.m. (between 12:30 a.m.-1 a.m. and 4 a.m.-5 a.m. the night driving and passenger restrictions are subject to secondary enforcement; enforcement is primary at all other times) no passengers younger than 18 (between 12:30 am–1 am and 4 am–5 am the night driving and passenger restrictions are secondarily enforced; enforcement is primary at all other times) until age 18 (min. age: 18) 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17)
MI 14, 9 monthsFootnote 35 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 36 10 p.m.-5 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 21 6 months and age 17 or until age 18 (min. age 17) 6 months and age 17 or until age 18 (min. age 17)
MN 15Footnote 37 6 monthsFootnote 38 40 hours, 15 of which must be at nightFootnote 39 16Footnote 40 midnight-5 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 20; second 6 months—no more than 3 passengers younger than 20 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.) 12 months or at age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17)
MS 15 12 monthsFootnote 41 none 16Footnote 42 10 p.m.-6 a.m. Sun.-Thur., 11:30 p.m.-6 a.m. Fri.-Sat. none 6 months or age 17, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.) none
MO 15 6 months 40 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16 1 a.m.-5 a.m. first 6 months—no more than 1 passenger younger than 19; thereafter, no more than 3 passengers younger than 19 entire intermediate stage (min. age: 17, 11 mo.) entire intermediate stage (min. age: 17, 11 mo.)
MT 14, 6 monthsFootnote 43 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 15Footnote 44 11 p.m.-5 a.m. first 6 months—no more than 1 passenger younger than 18; second 6 months—no more than 3 passengers younger than 18 12 months or at age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16) 12 months or at age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16)
NE 15Footnote 45 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night (none with driver education) 16 midnight-6 a.m. secondary enforcement no more than 1 passenger younger than 19 secondary enforcement 12 months or at age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17) 6 months or age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
NV 15, 6 months 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 46 10 p.m.-5 a.m. secondary enforcement no passengers younger than 18 secondary enforcement until age 18 (min. age: 18) 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
NH 15, 6 monthsFootnote 47 none 40 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16 1 a.m.-4 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 25 until age 18 (min. age: 18) 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
NJ 16Footnote 48 6 monthsFootnote 48 none 17Footnote 48 11 p.m. - 5 a.m. no more than 1 passenger (exception is limited to drivers' dependents) 12 months or until age 21, whichever occurs first (min. age: 18) 12 months or until age 21, whichever occurs first (min. age: 18)
NM 15Footnote 49 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 15, 6 monthsFootnote 50 midnight-5 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 21 12 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.) 12 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
NY 16 6 months 50 hours, 15 of which must be at night 16, 6 months 9 p.m.-5 a.m. except for NYC (unsupervised driving prohibited at all times) and Long Island (limited daytime unsupervised driving)Footnote 51 no more than 1 passenger younger than 21Footnote 51 until age 17 with driver education; until age 18 without (min. age: 17)Footnote 52 until age 17 with driver education; until age 18 without (min. age: 17)Footnote 52
NC 15Footnote 53,Footnote 54 12 monthsFootnote 54 60 hours, 10 of which must be at night, learner phase; 12 hours, 6 of which must be at night, intermediate phase 16Footnote 55,Footnote 56 9 p.m.-5 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 21; if a family member younger than 21 is already a passenger then no other passengers younger than 21 who are not family members 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.) 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
ND 14 <16: 12 months; 16: 6 months or until age 18, whichever comes first <16: 50 hours; ≥ 16: none 16; 15 for a parent requested restricted licenseFootnote 57 The holder of a restricted license may only drive a car belonging to a parent or guardian and may not drive between the later of sunset or 9 p.m. and 5 a.m. none until age 16 (min. age: 16) none
OH 15, 6 months 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 58 midnight-6 a.m. (first 12 months), 1 a.m.-5 a.m. (second 12 months) secondary enforcement first 12 months—no more than 1 passenger 24 months (min. age: 18) 12 months (min. age: 17)
OK 15, 6 monthsFootnote 59 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at nightFootnote 60 16 10 p.m.-5 a.m. no more than 1 passengerFootnote 61 6 months with driver education, 12 months without or until age 18 (min age: 16, 6 mos.) 6 months with driver education, 12 months without or until age 18 (min age: 16, 6 mos.)
OR 15 6 months 50 hoursFootnote 62(100 hours without driver education) 16Footnote 62 midnight-5 a.m. first 6 months–no passengers younger than 20; second 6 months–no more than 3 passengers younger than 20 12 months or age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17) 12 months or age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17)
PA 16 6 months 65 hours, 10 of which must be at night and 5 of which must be in inclement weather 16, 6 months 11 p.m.-5 a.m. first 6 months— no more than 1 passenger younger than 18; thereafter, no more than 3 passengers 12 months and age 17 if completed driver education or age 18 (min. age: 17) 12 months and age 17 if completed driver education or age 18 (min. age: 17)
RI 16Footnote 63 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16, 6 monthsFootnote 64 1 a.m.-5 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 21 12 months or age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17, 6 mos.) 12 months or age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17, 6 mos.)
SC 15 6 months 40 hours, 10 of which must be at night 15, 6 months 6 p.m.-6 a.m. EST; 8 p.m.-6 a.m. EDT no more than 2 passengers younger than 21 unless transporting students to and from school 12 months and age 17 if intermediate license has been held for at least 6 months (min. age: 16, 6 mos.) 12 months and age 17 if intermediate license has been held for at least 6 months (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
SD 14Footnote 65 6 months (3 months with driver education) noneFootnote 65 14, 6 months (14, 3 months with driver education) 10 p.m.-6 a.m. none until age 16 (min. age: 16) none
TN 15Footnote 66 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at nightFootnote 66 16 11 p.m.-6 a.m. no more than 1 passenger 12 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17) 12 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17)
TX 15Footnote 67 6 months 30 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 68 midnight-5 a.m. secondary enforcement no more than 1 passenger younger than 21 secondary enforcement until age 18 (min. age: 18) until age 18 (min. age: 18)
UT 15Footnote 69 6 months 40 hours, 10 of which must be at nightFootnote 69,Footnote 70 16Footnote 71 midnight-5 a.m. no passengers secondary enforcement until age 17 (min. age: 17) 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
VT 15 12 months 40 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 72 none first 3 months—no passengers without exception; second 3 months—no passengers secondary enforcement none 6 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)
VA 15, 6 monthsFootnote 73 9 monthsFootnote 73 45 hours, 15 of which must be at night 16, 3 monthsFootnote 74 midnight-4 a.m. Footnote 73 secondary enforcement first 12 months—no more than 1 passenger younger than 21; thereafter, no more than 3 passengers younger than 21 secondary enforcement until age 18 (min. age: 18) until age 18 (min. age: 18)
WA 15Footnote 75 6 months 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 76 1 a.m.-5 a.m. secondary enforcement first 6 months—no passengers younger than 20; second 6 months—no more than 3 passengers younger than 20 secondary enforcement 12 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17) 12 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17)Footnote 77
WV 15Footnote 78 6 monthsFootnote 78 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night (none with driver education) 16 10 p.m. - 5 a.m. first 6 months—no passengers younger than 20; second 6 months–no more than 1 passenger younger than 20 12 months and age 17 or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17) 12 months and age 17 or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 17)
WI 15, 6 monthsFootnote 79 6 monthsFootnote 79 30 hours, 10 of which must be at nightFootnote 79 16Footnote 80 midnight-5 a.m. no more than 1 passenger 9 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 9 mos.) 9 months or until age 18, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 9 mos.)
WY 15 10 days 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night 16Footnote 81 11 p.m.-5 a.m. no more than 1 passenger younger than 18 6 months or until age 17, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)Footnote 81 6 months or until age 17, whichever occurs first (min. age: 16, 6 mos.)Footnote 81