2023 Toyota bZ4X

small SUV / 4-door SUV

2023 Toyota bZ4X 4-door SUV

Crashworthiness

Rating overview
Small overlap front: driver-side
Small overlap front: passenger-side
Moderate overlap front: original test
Side: updated test

Crash avoidance & mitigation

Headlights (varies by trim/option)
Front crash prevention: vehicle-to-pedestrian (day)
Standard system
Superior
Front crash prevention: vehicle-to-pedestrian (night)
Standard system
Superior

Other available safety features

  • Standard daytime running lights
  • Standard blind spot detection
  • Standard lane departure warning
  • Standard lane departure prevention

Key

  • G
    Good
  • A
    Acceptable
  • M
    Marginal
  • P
    Poor
  • Superior
  • Advanced
  • Basic

Some ratings use a scale of Poor to Good. Others range from Basic to Superior.

Small overlap front: driver-side

Rating applies to 2023 models

Tested vehicle: 2023 Subaru Solterra Touring 4-door 4wd

The Subaru Solterra and Toyota bZ4X, both all-new electric vehicles, were introduced for the 2023 model year.

Overall evaluation
Structure and safety cage
Driver injury measures
Head/neck
Chest
Hip/thigh
Lower leg/foot
Driver restraints and dummy kinematics

Action shot taken during the driver-side small overlap frontal crash test.

The dummy's position in relation to the door frame, steering wheel, and instrument panel after the crash test indicates that the driver's survival space was maintained well.

The frontal and side curtain airbags worked well together to keep the head from coming close to any stiff structure or outside objects that could cause injury.

The driver's space was maintained well, and risk of injuries to the dummy's legs and feet was low.

Technical measurements for this test

Measures of occupant compartment intrusion on driver side

Test ID CEN2301
Lower occupant compartment
Lower hinge pillar max (cm) 3
Footrest (cm) 1
Left toepan (cm) 1
Brake pedal (cm) 3
Parking brake (cm)
Rocker panel lateral average (cm) 0
Upper occupant compartment
Steering column 1
Upper hinge pillar max (cm) 2
Upper dash (cm) 3
Lower instrument panel (cm) 3

Driver injury measures

Test ID CEN2301
Head
HIC-15 108
Peak gs at hard contact no contact
Neck
Tension (kN) 1.2
Extension bending moment (Nm) 19
Maximum Nij 0.22
Chest maximum compression (mm) 25
Femur (kN)
Left 0.6
Right 0.6
Knee displacement (mm)
Left 0
Right 0
Knee-thigh-hip injury risk (%)
Left 0
Right 0
Maximum tibia index
Left 0.29
Right 0.24
Tibia axial force (kN)
Left 1.6
Right 1.9
Foot acceleration (g)
Left 31
Right 49

How the driver-side small overlap front test is conducted

Small overlap front: passenger-side

Rating applies to 2023 models

Tested vehicle: 2023 Subaru Solterra Touring 4-door 4wd

The Subaru Solterra and Toyota bZ4X, both all-new electric vehicles, were introduced for the 2023 model year. Passenger-side small overlap frontal ratings are assigned by the Institute based on a test of a 2023 Solterra conducted by Subaru as part of frontal crash test verification.

Overall evaluation
Structure and safety cage
Passenger injury measures
Head/neck
Chest
Hip/thigh
Lower leg/foot
Passenger restraints and dummy kinematics
The dummy’s head maintained only partial engagement with the frontal airbag, moving into the gap between the frontal and side curtain airbags and leaving the head vulnerable to contact with forward structure.
Driver injury measures
Head/neck
Chest
Hip/thigh
Lower leg/foot
Driver restraints and dummy kinematics
Technical measurements for this test

Measures of occupant compartment intrusion on passenger side

Test ID VTP2302
Lower occupant compartment
Lower hinge pillar max (cm) 5
Footrest (cm) 1
Right toepan (cm) 4
Center toepan (cm) 1
Rocker panel lateral average (cm) 0
Upper occupant compartment
Center dash (cm) 3
Upper hinge pillar max (cm) 3
Upper dash (cm) 6
Right lower dash (cm) 3

Passenger injury measures

Test ID VTP2302
Head
HIC-15 78
Peak gs at hard contact no contact
Neck
Tension (kN) 1.0
Extension bending moment (Nm) 15
Maximum Nij 0.20
Chest maximum compression (mm) 21
Femur (kN)
Left 0.5
Right 0.5
Knee displacement (mm)
Left 1
Right 1
Knee-thigh-hip injury risk (%)
Left 0
Right 0
Maximum tibia index
Left 0.33
Right 0.35
Tibia axial force (kN)
Left 1.5
Right 1.6
Foot acceleration (g)
Left 30
Right 32

Driver injury measures

Test ID VTP2302
Head
HIC-15 88
Peak gs at hard contact no contact
Neck
Tension (kN) 1.1
Extension bending moment (Nm) 18
Maximum Nij 0.18
Chest maximum compression (mm) 25
Femur (kN)
Left 0.6
Right 1.1
Knee displacement (mm)
Left 0
Right 1
Knee-thigh-hip injury risk (%)
Left 0
Right 0
Maximum tibia index
Left 0.37
Right 0.44
Tibia axial force (kN)
Left 0.7
Right 1.9
Foot acceleration (g)
Left 28
Right 47

How the passenger-side small overlap front test is conducted

Moderate overlap front: original test

Rating applies to 2023 models

Tested vehicle: 2023 Subaru Solterra Premium 4-door 4wd

The Subaru Solterra and Toyota bZ4X, both all-new electric vehicles, were introduced for the 2023 model year.

Overall evaluation
Structure and safety cage
Driver injury measures
Head/neck
Chest
Leg/foot, left
Leg/foot, right
Driver restraints and dummy kinematics

Action shot taken during the moderate overlap frontal crash test.

The dummy's position in relation to the steering wheel and instrument panel after the crash test indicates that the driver's survival space was maintained well.

Smeared greasepaint indicates where the dummy's head contacted the side curtain airbag during rebound.

Forces on the right lower leg were just high enough to indicate the possibility of injuries.

Technical measurements for this test

Measures of occupant compartment intrusion on driver side

Test ID CEF2301
Footwell intrusion
Footrest (cm) 6
Left (cm) 8
Center (cm) 6
Right (cm) 5
Brake pedal (cm) 5
Instrument panel rearward movement
Left (cm) 0
Right (cm) 0
Steering column movement
Upward (cm) 2
Rearward (cm) 0
A-pillar rearward movement (cm) 0

Driver injury measures

Test ID CEF2301
Head
HIC-15 190
Peak gs at hard contact 23
Neck
Tension (kN) 1.3
Extension bending moment (Nm) 15
Maximum Nij 0.24
Chest maximum compression (mm) 32
Legs
Femur force - left (kN) 0.9
Femur force - right (kN) 2.5
Knee displacement - left (mm) 0
Knee displacement - right (mm) 1
Maximum tibia index - left 0.31
Maximum tibia index - right 0.55
Tibia axial force - left (kN) 2.1
Tibia axial force - right (kN) 4.7
Foot acceleration (g)
Left 59
Right 66

How the moderate overlap front test is conducted

Side: updated test

Rating applies to 2023 models built after October 2022

Tested vehicle: 2023 Subaru Solterra Touring 4-door 4wd

The Subaru Solterra and Toyota bZ4X, both all-new electric vehicles, were introduced for the 2023 model year. Beginning with 2023 models built after October 2022, reinforcements were implemented to improve occupant protection in side impact crashes. (Information about when a specific vehicle was manufactured is on the certification label typically affixed to the driver door or adjacent B-pillar.)

Overall evaluation
Structure and safety cage
Driver injury measures
Head/neck
Torso
Pelvis
Driver head protection
Rear passenger injury measures
Head/neck
Torso
Pelvis
Rear passenger head protection
Part of the dummy's head moved beyond the rear portion of the side curtain airbag and contacted the C-pillar. The head protection is inadequate.

View of the vehicle just after the crash test.

View of the vehicle after the crash with doors removed, showing the side airbags and damage to the occupant compartment.

Smeared greasepaint shows where the driver dummy's head was protected from being hit by hard structures by the side airbags.

Smeared greasepaint shows where the rear passenger dummy’s head moved beyond the side curtain airbag and contacted the C-pillar.

Technical measurements for this test

Measures of occupant compartment intrusion on driver side

Test ID CES2301
B-pillar to longitudinal centerline of driver's seat (cm) -27.0
Negative numbers indicate the amount by which the crush stopped short of the seat centerline.

Driver injury measures

Test ID CES2301
Head
HIC-15 105
Peak gs at hard contact no contact
Neck
Tension (kN) 0.7
Compression (kN) 0.1
Shoulder
Lateral deflection (mm) 13
Lateral force (kN) 0.6
Torso
Maximum deflection (mm) 31
Average deflection (mm) 20
Maximum deflection rate (m/s) 3.12
Maximum viscous criterion (m/s) 0.33
Pelvis
Combined force (kN) 3.9

Passenger injury measures

Test ID CES2301
Head
HIC-15 212
Peak gs at hard contact 68
Neck
Tension (kN) 1.4
Compression (kN) 0.7
Shoulder
Lateral deflection (mm) 16
Lateral force (kN) 1.0
Torso
Maximum deflection (mm) 30
Average deflection (mm) 22
Maximum deflection rate (m/s) 2.79
Maximum viscous criterion (m/s) 0.35
Pelvis
Combined force (kN) 2.9

How the side crash test is conducted

Headlights

Ratings are given for 2 different headlight variations available on this vehicle.

Trim level(s)

  • Limited trim
Low-beam headlight type LED projector
High-beam headlight type LED projector
Curve-adaptive? No
High-beam assist? Yes
Overall rating
Distance at which headlights provide at least 5 lux illumination:
car-simpler car-simpler car-simpler car-simpler car-simpler 0 ft 100 ft 200 ft 300 ft 400 ft 500 ft 600 ft Low beams Optimal low-beam illumination High beams Optimal high-beam illumination High-beam assist credit

Low beams
On the straightaway, visibility was good on the left side of the road and fair on the right side. On curves, visibility was good on the gradual left and both right curves and fair on the sharp left curve.

The low beams never exceeded glare limits.

High beams
On the straightaway, visibility was good on both sides of the road. On curves, visibility was good on both right curves and fair on both left curves.

High-beam assist compensates for some limitations of this vehicle's low beams on the straightaway, on both left curves and on the sharp right curve.

Technical measurements for this test
Trim level(s)
  • Limited trim
Low-beam headlight type LED projector
High-beam headlight type LED projector
Curve-adaptive? No
High-beam assist? Yes
Overall rating
Applies to 2023 models
LOW BEAMS Average minimum useful
illumination distance (5 lux)
Amount glare
exceeded threshold
Straightaway right edge 92.2 m None
Straightaway left edge 61.6 m None
250m radius right curve, right edge 71.3 m None
250m radius left curve, left edge 65.2 m None
150m radius right curve, right edge 58.0 m None
150m radius left curve, left edge 50.9 m None
HIGH BEAMS Average minimum useful
illumination distance (5 lux)
Straightaway right edge 176.2 m
Straightaway left edge 162.4 m
250m radius right curve, right edge 82.5 m
250m radius left curve, left edge 72.1 m
150m radius right curve, right edge 66.4 m
150m radius left curve, left edge 60.2 m

Trim level(s)

  • XLE trim
Low-beam headlight type LED projector
High-beam headlight type LED projector
Curve-adaptive? No
High-beam assist? Yes
Overall rating
Distance at which headlights provide at least 5 lux illumination:
car-simpler car-simpler car-simpler car-simpler car-simpler 0 ft 100 ft 200 ft 300 ft 400 ft 500 ft 600 ft Low beams Optimal low-beam illumination High beams Optimal high-beam illumination High-beam assist credit

Low beams
On the straightaway, visibility was inadequate on both sides of the road. On curves, visibility was fair on the sharp right curve and inadequate on the gradual right and both left curves.

The low beams never exceeded glare limits.

High beams
On the straightaway, visibility was inadequate on both sides of the road. On curves, visibility was good on the gradual right and gradual left curves and fair on the sharp right and sharp left curves.

High-beam assist compensates for some limitations of this vehicle's low beams on the straightaway and all 4 curves.

Technical measurements for this test
Trim level(s)
  • XLE trim
Low-beam headlight type LED projector
High-beam headlight type LED projector
Curve-adaptive? No
High-beam assist? Yes
Overall rating
Applies to 2023 models
LOW BEAMS Average minimum useful
illumination distance (5 lux)
Amount glare
exceeded threshold
Straightaway right edge 51.1 m None
Straightaway left edge 36.9 m None
250m radius right curve, left edge 46.9 m None
250m radius left curve, left edge 42.9 m None
150m radius right curve, right edge 51.0 m None
150m radius left curve, left edge 38.2 m None
HIGH BEAMS Average minimum useful
illumination distance (5 lux)
Straightaway right edge 121.9 m
Straightaway left edge 117.9 m
250m radius right curve, right edge 82.3 m
250m radius left curve, left edge 78.0 m
150m radius right curve, right edge 62.0 m
150m radius left curve, left edge 60.2 m

How headlights are evaluated

Front crash prevention: vehicle-to-pedestrian (day)

System details

  • standard Pre-collision System (Safety Sense 3.0)

Overall evaluation

This rating applies to all 2023 models

Superior
Superior

Crossing child

  • In the 12 mph IIHS test, this vehicle avoided a collision.
  • In the 25 mph IIHS test, this vehicle avoided a collision.

Crossing adult

  • In the 12 mph IIHS test, this vehicle avoided a collision.
  • In the 25 mph IIHS test, this vehicle avoided a collision.

Parallel adult

  • In the 25 mph IIHS test, this vehicle avoided a collision.
  • In the 37 mph IIHS test, this vehicle avoided a collision. A warning was issued 2.4 seconds before impact.

How front crash prevention is evaluated

Front crash prevention: vehicle-to-pedestrian (night)

System details

  • standard Pre-collision System (Safety Sense 3.0)

Overall evaluation

Includes high-beam assist credit

This rating applies to 2023 models of the following trim lines: Limited trim
Superior
Superior

Crossing adult

  • In the 12 mph IIHS test, this vehicle avoided a collision when using its high beams. When using its low beams, this vehicle avoided a collision.
  • In the 25 mph IIHS test, impact speed was reduced by 23 mph when using its high beams. When using its low beams, impact speed was reduced by 20 mph.

Parallel adult

  • In the 25 mph IIHS test, this vehicle avoided a collision when using its high beams. When using its low beams, this vehicle avoided a collision.
  • In the 37 mph IIHS test, this vehicle avoided a collision when using its high beams and a warning was issued 2.3 seconds before impact. When using its low beams, this vehicle avoided a collision and a warning was issued 2.1 seconds before impact.

How front crash prevention is evaluated