Large trucks | 2014

Most deaths in large truck crashes are passenger vehicle occupants. The main problem is the vulnerability of people traveling in smaller vehicles. Trucks often weigh 20-30 times as much as passenger cars and are taller with greater ground clearance, which can result in smaller vehicles underriding trucks in crashes.

Truck braking capability can be a factor in truck crashes. Loaded tractor-trailers take 20-40 percent farther than cars to stop, and the discrepancy is greater on wet and slippery roads or with poorly maintained brakes. Truck driver fatigue also is a known crash risk. Drivers of large trucks are allowed by federal hours-of-service regulations to drive up to 11 hours at a stretch and up to 77 hours over a seven-day period. Surveys indicate that many drivers violate the regulations and work longer than permitted. McCartt, A.T.; Hellinga L.A.; and Solomon, M.G. 2008. Work schedules of long-distance truck drivers before and after 2004 hours-of-service rule change. Traffic Injury Prevention 9:201-10.

The following facts are based on analysis of data from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS).

Posted February 2016.

Trends

A total of 3,660 people died in large truck crashes in 2014. Sixteen percent of these deaths were truck occupants, 68 percent were occupants of cars and other passenger vehicles, and 15 percent were pedestrians, bicyclists or motorcyclists. The number of people who died in large truck crashes was 16 percent higher in 2014 than in 2009, when it was lower than at any year since the collection of fatal crash data began in 1975.  The number of truck occupants who died was 31 percent higher than in 2009. Since 1979, when deaths in large truck crashes were at an all time high, there has been a greater percentage decline among occupants of large trucks (57 percent) than among occupants of passenger vehicles (41 percent).

Deaths in crashes involving large trucks, 1975-2014
YearPassenger vehicle occupants Large truck occupants Motorcyclists, bicyclists and pedestriansTotal*
Number%Number%Number%Number%
1975 2,757 64 916 21 528 12 4,305 100
1976 3,071 63 1,100 22 622 13 4,893 100
1977 3,631 65 1,229 22 653 12 5,614 100
1978 3,954 64 1,315 21 776 13 6,160 100
1979 4,226 65 1,372 21 830 13 6,539 100
1980 3,623 63 1,183 21 844 15 5,740 100
1981 3,752 66 1,082 19 772 14 5,680 100
1982 3,448 67 917 18 679 13 5,125 100
1983 3,615 67 960 18 732 14 5,404 100
1984 3,713 67 1,040 19 712 13 5,550 100
1985 3,825 68 941 17 724 13 5,613 100
1986 3,752 69 892 16 718 13 5,468 100
1987 3,833 70 821 15 712 13 5,471 100
1988 3,938 71 886 16 647 12 5,566 100
1989 3,847 72 822 15 587 11 5,360 100
1990 3,790 73 684 13 615 12 5,174 100
1991 3,447 73 650 14 562 12 4,728 100
1992 3,300 75 580 13 481 11 4,422 100
1993 3,611 76 590 12 462 10 4,778 100
1994 3,764 74 658 13 555 11 5,069 100
1995 3,626 75 634 13 495 10 4,834 100
1996 3,866 77 602 12 465 9 5,048 100
1997 3,992 75 717 14 497 9 5,295 100
1998 3,981 75 739 14 495 9 5,316 100
1999 3,916 74 747 14 519 10 5,299 100
2000 3,863 75 737 14 490 9 5,173 100
2001 3,709 74 691 14 513 10 5,012 100
2002 3,616 75 675 14 464 10 4,846 100
2003 3,595 73 703 14 504 10 4,905 100
2004 3,693 72 743 15 564 11 5,099 100
2005 3,584 71 758 15 595 12 5,049 100
2006 3,466 71 774 16 564 12 4,886 100
2007 3,234 70 745 16 578 13 4,613 100
2008 2,774 69 615 15 580 14 4,017 100
2009 2,223 71 449 14 443 14 3,147 100
2010 2,453 72 475 14 445 13 3,418 100
2011 2,245 66 555 16 530 16 3,384 100
2012 2,362 67 590 17 537 15 3,529 100
2013 2,418 67 589 16 560 15 3,616 100
2014 2,485 68 587 16 531 15 3,660 100

Ninety-seven percent of vehicle occupants killed in two-vehicle crashes involving a passenger vehicle and a large truck in 2014 were occupants of the passenger vehicles.

Occupant deaths in two-vehicle crashes involving a large truck and a passenger vehicle, 2014
Occupant typeDeaths%
Passenger vehicle occupants 1,966 97
Large truck occupants 60 3
All occupant deaths 2,026 100

Eleven percent of all motor vehicle crash deaths in 2014 occurred in large truck crashes.

Motor vehicle crash deaths occurring in large truck crashes and other crashes, 2014
Crash typeDeaths%
Large truck crashes 3,660 11
Other crashes 29,015 89
All crashes 32,675 100

Seventy-two percent of deaths in large truck crashes in 2014 were in crashes involving tractor-trailers and 28 percent were in crashes involving single-unit trucks.  Some crashes involved both a tractor-trailer and a single-unit truck. 

Deaths in large truck crashes by truck type involved, 2014
Truck typeDeaths%
Tractor-trailer 2,633 72
Single-unit 1,027 28

Sixty-three percent of large truck occupants killed in multiple-vehicle crashes in 2014 occurred in collisions involving another large truck.

Deaths of large truck occupants in multiple-vehicle crashes by number of large truck involved, 2014
Number of large trucksDeaths%
1 87 37
≥ 2 147 63
Total 234 100

Twelve percent of all passenger vehicle occupant deaths and 24 percent of passenger vehicle occupant deaths in multiple-vehicle crashes in 2014 occurred in crashes with large trucks.

Passenger vehicle occupant deaths by crash type and large truck involvement, 2014
Crash typeLarge truck crashesOther crashes All crashes
Number%Number%Number
Single-vehicle 00 10,618 100 10,618
Multiple-vehicle 2,485 24 7,999 76 10,484
All crashes* 2,485 12 18,617 88 21,102

Among vehicle occupants killed in large truck crashes, both the rate of passenger vehicle occupant deaths per truck mile traveled and the rate of large truck occupant deaths per truck mile traveled have declined substantially since 1975. Federal Highway Administration. 2015. Highway statistics, 2014. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

Occupant deaths in large truck crashes per 100 million truck miles traveled, 1975-2014
YearTruck miles traveled in millionsLarge truck occupants Passenger vehicle occupants
NumberrateNumberrate
1975 81,330 916 1.13 2,757 3.39
1976 86,070 1,100 1.28 3,071 3.57
1977 95,021 1,229 1.29 3,631 3.82
1978 105,739 1,315 1.24 3,954 3.74
1979 109,004 1,372 1.26 4,226 3.88
1980 108,491 1,183 1.09 3,623 3.34
1981 108,702 1,082 1.00 3,752 3.45
1982 111,423 917 0.82 3,448 3.09
1983 116,132 960 0.83 3,615 3.11
1984 121,796 1,040 0.85 3,713 3.05
1985 123,504 941 0.76 3,825 3.10
1986 126,675 892 0.70 3,752 2.96
1987 133,517 821 0.61 3,833 2.87
1988 137,985 886 0.64 3,938 2.85
1989 142,749 822 0.58 3,847 2.69
1990 146,242 684 0.47 3,790 2.59
1991 149,543 650 0.43 3,447 2.31
1992 153,384 580 0.38 3,300 2.15
1993 159,888 590 0.37 3,611 2.26
1994 170,216 658 0.39 3,764 2.21
1995 178,162 634 0.36 3,626 2.04
1996 182,971 602 0.33 3,866 2.11
1997 191,477 717 0.37 3,992 2.08
1998 196,380 739 0.38 3,981 2.03
1999 202,688 747 0.37 3,916 1.93
2000 205,520 737 0.36 3,863 1.88
2001 209,032 691 0.33 3,709 1.77
2002 214,603 675 0.31 3,616 1.68
2003 217,917 703 0.32 3,595 1.65
2004 220,792 743 0.34 3,693 1.67
2005 222,523 758 0.34 3,584 1.61
2006 222,513 774 0.35 3,466 1.56
2007 304,178 745 0.24 3,234 1.06
2008 310,680 615 0.20 2,774 0.89
2009 288,306 449 0.16 2,223 0.77
2010 286,527 475 0.17 2,453 0.86
2011 267,594 555 0.21 2,245 0.84
2012 269,207 590 0.22 2,362 0.88
2013 275,017 589 0.21 2,418 0.88
2014 279,132 587 0.21 2,485 0.89

Where and when large truck crashes occurred

Fifty-nine percent of deaths in large truck crashes in 2014 occurred on major roads other than interstates and freeways, 31 percent occurred on interstates and freeways, and 9 percent occurred on minor roads.

Deaths in large truck crashes by road type, 2014
Road typeDeaths%
Interstates and freeways 1,125 31
Other major roads 2,159 59
Minor roads 332 9
All road types* 3,660 100

Forty-seven percent of large truck crash deaths in 2014 occurred from 6 a.m. to 3 p.m., compared with 31 percent of crash deaths not involving large trucks.

Deaths in large truck crashes and other crashes by time of day, 2014
Time of dayLarge truck crashesOther crashes All crashes
Deaths%Deaths%Deaths%
Midnight - 3 a.m. 249 7 3,535 12 3,784 12
3 a.m. - 6 a.m. 386 11 2,399 8 2,785 9
6 a.m. - 9 a.m. 547 15 2,715 9 3,262 10
9 a.m. - noon 558 15 2,577 9 3,135 10
Noon - 3 p.m. 622 17 3,564 12 4,186 13
3 p.m. - 6 p.m. 583 16 4,602 16 5,185 16
6 p.m. - 9 p.m. 401 11 4,942 17 5,343 16
9 p.m. - midnight 306 8 4,450 15 4,756 15
Total* 3,660 100 29,015 100 32,675 100

Sixteen percent of large truck crash deaths in 2014 occurred on Saturday and Sunday, compared with 36 percent of crash deaths not involving large trucks.

Deaths in large truck crashes and other crashes by day of week, 2014
Day of WeekLarge truck crashesOther crashes All crashes
Deaths%Deaths%Deaths%
Sunday 239 7 4,929 17 5,168 16
Monday 627 17 3,443 12 4,070 12
Tuesday 592 16 3,316 11 3,908 12
Wednesday 634 17 3,496 12 4,130 13
Thursday 632 17 3,570 12 4,202 13
Friday 582 16 4,629 16 5,211 16
Saturday 354 10 5,632 19 5,986 18
Total* 3,660 100 29,015 100 32,675 100

Comparison of large truck crashes and passenger vehicle crashes

Fifty-one percent of large truck occupant deaths in 2014 occurred in crashes in which their vehicles rolled over. This was similar to the percentage of SUV occupant deaths (50 percent) and pickup occupant deaths (44 percent) that occurred in rollover crashes and much higher than the percentage of occupant deaths in cars (22 percent) involving rollovers.

Occupant deaths by rollover occurrence and vehicle type, 2014
Vehicle typeNo rolloverRollover All crashes
Number%Number%Number%
Large truck 287 49 300 51 587 100
SUV 2,029 50 2,068 50 4,097 100
Pickup 2,355 56 1,868 44 4,223 100
Car 9,698 78 2,809 22 12,507 100
Total* 19,416 72 7,446 28 26,862 100

Sixty percent of large truck occupant deaths in 2014 occurred in single-vehicle crashes, compared with 50 percent of passenger vehicle occupant deaths.

Occupant deaths in large trucks and passenger vehicles by number of vehicles involved, 2014
Crash typeLarge truck occupants Passenger vehicle occupants
Number%Number%
Single-vehicle 353 60 10,618 50
Multiple-vehicle 234 40 10,484 50
All crashes* 587 100 21,102 100

Eighteen percent of large trucks in fatal crashes in 2014 were involved in single-vehicle crashes; in contrast, 40 percent of passenger vehicles in fatal crashes were involved in single-vehicle crashes.

Large truck and passenger vehicle involvement in fatal crashes by number of vehicles involved, 2014
Crash typeLarge trucksPassenger vehicles
Number%Number%
Single vehicle 613 18 14,173 40
Two vehicles 2,146 61 15,755 45
> 2 vehicles 743 21 5,333 15
All crashes* 3,502 100 35,261 100

Forty-six percent of fatally injured large truck drivers in 2014 were using safety belts, compared with 48 percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers. Belt use was unknown for 20 percent of fatally injured large truck drivers, compared with 8 percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers.

Safety belt use among fatally injured large truck and passenger vehicle drivers, 2014
Belt useLarge truck drivers Passenger vehicle drivers
Number%Number%
Belt used 245 46 7,415 48
Unbelted 186 35 6,891 45
Unknown 107 20 1,173 8
Total 538 100 15,479 100

Twenty-eight percent of passenger vehicle occupants killed in two-vehicle crashes with a large truck in 2014 were in head-on crashes with the truck.  Nineteen percent involved the front of the passenger vehicle striking the rear of the large truck.

Passenger vehicle occupant deaths in 2-vehicle crashes with a large truck, 2014
Large truckPassenger vehicleTotal
FrontSide Rear Other
Number%Number%Number%Number%Number%
Front 555 28 557 28 117 6 10 1 1239 63
Side 256 13 49 2 2 <1 7 <1 314 16
Rear 371 19 9 <1 1 <1 3 <1 384 20
Other 19 1 3 <100 7 <1 29 1
Total 1201 61 618 31 120 6 27 1 1966100

Large truck drivers killed in fatal crashes rarely have high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Truck drivers are subject to strict government regulations concerning drinking and driving. Three percent of fatally injured large truck drivers in 2014 had BACs at or above 0.08 percent, down from 17 percent in 1982. For comparison, 32 percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers in 2014 had BACs at or above 0.08 percent, down from 51 percent in 1982.

Estimated percent and number of fatally injured large truck and passenger vehicle drivers with BACs ≥0.08 percent, 1982-2014
YearLarge truck drivers Passenger vehicle drivers
DeathsEstimated deaths with BACs ≥ 0.08DeathsEstimated deaths with BACs ≥ 0.08
NumberNumber%NumberNumber%
1982 735 123 17 19,664 10,024 51
1983 767 115 15 19,338 9,529 49
1984 859 107 12 20,300 9,379 46
1985 775 84 11 20,058 8,674 43
1986 736 58 8 21,503 9,396 44
1987 686 53 8 22,157 9,343 42
1988 743 66 9 22,884 9,580 42
1989 681 68 10 22,554 9,200 41
1990 570 50 9 21,953 8,973 41
1991 550 39 7 20,551 8,242 40
1992 506 26 5 19,573 7,434 38
1993 504 26 5 20,036 7,328 37
1994 545 36 7 20,647 7,083 34
1995 546 31 6 21,457 7,488 35
1996 525 34 6 21,631 7,336 34
1997 616 19 3 21,711 7,069 33
1998 628 30 5 21,627 6,944 32
1999 631 28 4 21,899 6,994 32
2000 641 28 4 21,819 7,127 33
2001 591 22 4 21,862 7,205 33
2002 582 38 7 22,537 7,381 33
2003 608 23 4 22,200 7,120 32
2004 624 24 4 21,952 6,952 32
2005 663 22 3 21,953 7,104 32
2006 678 30 4 21,592 7,164 33
2007 663 17 3 20,542 7,057 34
2008 534 19 4 18,266 6,280 34
2009 399 16 4 16,834 5,791 34
2010 426 17 4 16,029 5,177 32
2011 493 9 2 15,561 5,064 33
2012 524 14 3 15,915 5,204 33
2013 529 17 3 15,577 5,108 33
2014 538 15 3 15,479 4,913 32

References