Fatality Facts 2016Passenger vehicle occupants

Passenger vehicle occupants

By far the largest number of motor vehicle crash deaths are occupants of passenger vehicles including cars, minivans, pickups, SUVs and cargo/large passenger vans. The likelihood of crash death varies markedly among these vehicle types according to size. Small/light vehicles have less structure and size to absorb crash energy, so crash forces on occupants will be higher. People in lighter vehicles are at a disadvantage in collisions with heavier vehicles. Kahane, C.J. 2012. Relationships between fatality risk, mass, and footprint in model year 2000-2007 passenger cars and LTVs — final report. Report no. DOT HS-811-665. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.Pickups and SUVs are proportionally more likely than cars to be in fatal single-vehicle crashes, especially rollovers. However, pickups and SUVs generally are heavier than cars, so occupant deaths in SUVs and pickups are less likely to occur in multiple-vehicle crashes.

Guide to car size groups Guide to SUV size groups Guide to pickup size groups
Curb weight Shadow
(overall length x width in square feet)
Curb weight Curb weight
70-80 81-90 91-100 101-110 > 110 Small 3,001-3,750 lbs Small ≤ 4,000 lbs
2,001-2,500 lbs Mini Small Small Small Midsize Midsize 3,751-4,750 lbs Large > 4,000 lbs and carrying capacity = 1/2 ton
2,501-3,000 lbs Small Small Midsize Midsize Midsize Large 4,751-5,750 lbs Very large > 4,000 lbs and carrying capacity > 1/2 ton
3,001-3,500 lbs Small Midsize Midsize Large Large Very large > 5,750 lbs or shadow > 115 sq ft
3,501-4,000 lbs Small Midsize Large Large Very large
> 4,000 lbs Midsize Midsize Large Very large Very large
Note: Passenger versions of vans often referred to as minivans are classified as cars.

The following facts are based on analysis of data from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and The Polk Company's National Vehicle Population Profile.

Posted December 2017.

Crash types

Frontal impacts accounted for 54 percent of passenger vehicle occupant deaths in 2016. Side impacts accounted for another 25 percent of passenger vehicle occupant deaths.

Passenger vehicle occupant deaths in single-vehicle crashes by impact point and vehicle type, 2016
Point of initial impact Car occupants Pickup occupants SUV occupants All occupants
Number % Number % Number % Number %
Frontal 3,061 53 1,322 48 1,221 45 5,684 50
Side 1,161 20 394 14 360 13 1,933 17
Rear 129 2 35 1 28 1 192 2
Other (mostly rollover) 1,410 24 984 36 1,101 41 3,556 31
All* 5,761 100 2,735 100 2,710 100 11,365 100
Passenger vehicle occupant deaths in multiple-vehicle crashes by impact point and vehicle type, 2016
Point of initial impact Car occupants Pickup occupants SUV occupants All occupants
Number % Number % Number % Number %
Frontal 4,394 54 1,230 66 1,283 59 7,063 57
Side 2,869 35 455 24 568 26 3,933 32
Rear 758 9 131 7 225 10 1,143 9
Other (mostly rollover) 148 2 47 3 87 4 289 2
All* 8,169 100 1,863 100 2,163 100 12,428 100
Passenger vehicle occupant deaths in all crashes by impact point and vehicle type, 2016
Point of initial impact Car occupants Pickup occupants SUV occupants All occupants
Number % Number % Number % Number %
Frontal 7,455 54 2,552 56 2,504 51 12,747 54
Side 4,030 29 849 18 928 19 5,866 25
Rear 887 6 166 4 253 5 1,335 6
Other (mostly rollover) 1,558 11 1,031 22 1,188 24 3,845 16
All* 13,930 100 4,598 100 4,873 100 23,793 100

Forty-one percent of car occupant deaths in 2016 occurred in single-vehicle crashes and 59 percent occurred in multiple-vehicle crashes. In contrast, single-vehicle crashes accounted for 56 percent of SUV occupant deaths and 59 percent of pickup occupant deaths.

Passenger vehicle occupant deaths by vehicle and crash type, 2016
Vehicle type Deaths in single-vehicle crashes Deaths in multiple-vehicle crashes Deaths in all crashes*
Number % Number % Number %
Cars 5,761 41 8,169 59 13,930 100
Pickups 2,735 59 1,863 41 4,598 100
SUVs 2,710 56 2,163 44 4,873 100
Other 159 41 233 59 392 100
All passenger vehicles 11,365 48 12,428 52 23,793 100

Age and gender differences

Twenty-five percent of passenger vehicle occupants killed in 2016 were younger than 25.

Passenger vehicle occupant deaths by age, 2016
Age All occupants
Number %
<25 6,028 25
25-29 2,526 11
30-34 2,013 8
35-39 1,556 7
40-44 1,410 6
45-49 1,349 6
50-54 1,441 6
55-59 1,405 6
60-64 1,313 6
65-69 1,173 5
70+ 3,550 15
All * 23,793 100

Seventy-four percent of passenger vehicle occupants killed in 2016 were drivers; 71 percent of these were males.

Passenger vehicle occupant deaths by age, type, and gender, 2016
Age Drivers All occupants
Male Female Total* Male Female Total*
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
<16 23 66 12 34 35 100 477 50 476 50 953 100
16-19 791 67 380 32 1,172 100 1,220 64 699 36 1,920 100
20-24 1,685 73 609 27 2,296 100 2,194 70 959 30 3,155 100
25-29 1,418 73 516 27 1,935 100 1,756 70 769 30 2,526 100
30-34 1,158 72 448 28 1,606 100 1,371 68 642 32 2,013 100
35-39 892 73 333 27 1,226 100 1,071 69 484 31 1,556 100
40-44 833 73 310 27 1,143 100 977 69 433 31 1,410 100
45-49 772 71 323 29 1,095 100 897 66 452 34 1,349 100
50-54 815 68 385 32 1,200 100 933 65 508 35 1,441 100
55-59 841 73 304 27 1,145 100 952 68 453 32 1,405 100
60-64 766 70 330 30 1,097 100 851 65 461 35 1,313 100
65-69 650 69 295 31 945 100 713 61 460 39 1,173 100
≥70 1,773 67 859 33 2,632 100 2,047 58 1,503 42 3,550 100
All* 12,422 71 5,107 29 17,538 100 15,476 65 8,308 35 23,793 100

Eight percent of passenger vehicle occupant deaths were in the second or third row; 28 percent of these were younger than 13.

Passenger vehicle occupant deaths by seating position and age, 2016
Seating position <13 years 13-19 years ≥20 years All*
Number % Number % Number % Number %
Driver 0 0 1,207 7 16,320 93 17,538 100
Front row passenger 100 3 531 13 3,307 84 3,949 100
Second row passenger 500 27 319 17 1,004 55 1,828 100
Third row passenger 48 46 16 15 41 39 105 100
All* 723 3 2,150 9 20,891 88 23,793 100

Driver death rates

Computing driver death rates per million registered passenger vehicles allows for comparisons of fatal crash risk across vehicle groups. The computed rates reflect the influence of vehicle designs plus their patterns of use and the demographics of their drivers. Driver death rates are based on 1-3-year-old vehicles only so as to minimize the effects of vehicle aging. Rates based on fewer than 120,000 vehicle registrations are considered unreliable and are not included.

Since 1978, the overall rates of driver and occupant deaths per million registered vehicles have declined across all passenger vehicle types. Declines in death rates have been largest for SUV occupants.

Occupant deaths per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old, 1978-2016
Year Drivers All occupants
Cars Pickups SUVs All passenger vehicles Cars Pickups SUVs All passenger vehicles
1978 155 237 273 169 235 346 438 256
1979 165 246 271 180 244 350 425 265
1980 167 221 287 177 248 316 494 263
1981 177 216 237 182 259 296 389 265
1982 155 188 229 159 231 263 392 236
1983 148 188 225 153 220 263 337 225
1984 147 190 143 151 218 259 218 222
1985 139 182 141 144 208 257 227 213
1986 128 172 134 133 196 239 224 202
1987 130 178 136 136 197 248 232 205
1988 134 186 121 140 206 251 198 211
1989 130 185 116 138 200 255 185 208
1990 122 179 126 131 188 245 201 197
1991 108 169 109 117 169 229 175 178
1992 102 151 88 108 160 200 151 165
1993 97 137 93 102 153 187 141 156
1994 100 134 87 104 160 178 148 161
1995 103 134 102 107 160 180 157 162
1996 107 127 98 109 168 178 150 167
1997 96 118 93 99 153 161 146 153
1998 90 119 86 94 141 158 141 144
1999 91 120 93 96 138 162 139 143
2000 83 117 81 89 127 155 135 134
2001 84 130 74 89 125 170 116 131
2002 84 123 76 88 126 162 122 131
2003 81 115 72 85 122 151 115 126
2004 76 107 66 79 114 145 103 117
2005 79 110 56 78 117 145 88 114
2006 77 101 49 73 112 137 74 106
2007 70 95 44 67 104 128 69 99
2008 65 87 35 61 92 114 52 85
2009 57 63 25 49 82 83 36 69
2010 49 64 20 43 71 80 29 61
2011 43 49 17 37 62 66 24 52
2012 42 44 16 35 61 56 23 49
2013 41 39 19 34 58 52 26 48
2014 37 38 18 32 53 47 24 44
2015 42 40 20 35 62 52 29 51
2016 43 39 21 35 63 48 32 51

Historically, the rates of driver deaths per million registered vehicles have been higher for the smaller and lighter vehicles. This was true again in 2016, but the differences were less extreme than they used to be.

Driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old, 2016

Driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old, 2016
Registered vehicles Deaths Rate
Cars Mini 1,164,660 71 61
Small 8,481,996 442 52
Midsize 10,580,738 394 37
Large 2,884,930 132 46
Very large 1,826,670 40 22
All cars 24,938,994 1,082 43
Pickups Small 738,541 25 34
Large 4,444,611 163 37
Very large 1,283,925 52 41
All pickups 6,467,077 254 39
SUVs Small 5,439,759 137 25
Midsize 8,007,224 153 19
Large 1,858,073 30 16
Very large 383,832 6 16
All SUVs 15,688,888 327 21
All passenger vehicles All 47,838,521 1,696 35

Overall in 2016, there were 13 driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles in single-vehicle crashes and 22 driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles in multiple-vehicle crashes. Pickups had the highest number of deaths per registered vehicle in single-vehicle crashes (18 per million) and cars had the highest number of deaths per registered vehicle in multiple-vehicle crashes (28 per million). SUVs had the lowest number of deaths per registered vehicle both in single-vehicle crashes (9 per million) and in multiple-vehicle crashes (12 per million).

Driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old by crash type, 2016
Multiple-vehicle Single-vehicle Single-vehicle rollover All crashes
Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate
Cars Mini 52 45 19 16 7 6 71 61
Small 303 36 139 16 43 5 442 52
Midsize 244 23 150 14 44 4 394 37
Large 73 25 59 20 19 7 132 46
Very large 26 14 14 8 5 3 40 22
All cars 700 28 382 15 118 5 1,082 43
Pickups Small 17 23 8 11 7 9 25 34
Large 87 20 76 17 26 6 163 37
Very large 21 16 31 24 16 12 52 41
All pickups 137 21 117 18 49 8 254 39
SUVs Small 87 16 50 9 19 3 137 25
Midsize 84 10 69 9 27 3 153 19
Large 16 9 14 8 7 4 30 16
Very large 4 10 2 5 0 0 6 16
All SUVs 191 12 136 9 54 3 327 21
All passenger vehicles All 1,051 22 645 13 226 5 1,696 35
Driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old by crash type, 2016, for pickups and SUVs by 2WD and 4WD
Multiple-vehicle Single-vehicle Single-vehicle rollover All crashes
2WD 4WD 2WD 4WD 2WD 4WD 2WD 4WD
Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate
Pickups Small 7 19 10 26 3 8 5 13 3 8 4 11 10 28 15 40
Large 41 29 46 15 21 15 55 18 7 5 19 6 62 43 101 33
Very large 5 16 14 1 30 26 1 15 13 6 46 39
All pickups 53 28 72 16 25 13 90 20 11 6 38 8 78 41 162 36
SUVs Small 52 23 35 11 19 9 31 10 7 3 12 4 71 32 66 21
Midsize 53 16 31 7 30 9 39 8 12 4 15 3 83 25 70 15
Large 10 14 6 5 5 7 9 8 3 4 4 3 15 21 15 13
Very large 2 16 2 8 2 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 8
All SUVs 117 18 74 8 56 9 79 9 22 3 31 3 173 27 153 17

Frontal impacts accounted for 15 driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles in multiple-vehicle crashes in 2016 compared with 6 deaths per million in side impacts and 2 deaths per million in rear impacts.

Driver deaths in multiple-vehicle crashes per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old, 2016
Frontal impacts Side impacts Rear impacts Other Total
Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate
Cars 441 18 194 8 55 2 5 <1 700 28
Pickups 106 16 24 4 5 <1 1 <1 137 21
SUVs 130 8 44 3 15 <1 2 <1 191 12
All passenger vehicles 695 15 265 6 76 2 8 <1 1,051 22
Driver deaths in multiple-vehicle crashes per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old, 2016, by passenger vehicle sizes
Frontal impacts Side impacts Rear impacts Other Total
Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate
Cars Mini 35 30 12 10 5 4 0 <1 52 45
Small 183 22 90 11 26 3 3 <1 303 36
Midsize 160 15 57 5 22 2 1 <1 244 23
Large 45 16 26 9 1 <1 1 <1 73 25
Very large 17 9 8 4 1 <1 0 <1 26 14
All cars 441 18 194 8 55 2 5 <1 700 28
Pickups Small 12 16 3 4 1 1 1 1 17 23
Large 70 16 14 3 2 <1 0 <1 87 20
Very large 16 12 5 4 0 <1 0 <1 21 16
All pickups 106 16 24 4 5 <1 1 <1 137 21
SUVs Small 60 11 20 4 7 1 0 <1 87 16
Midsize 54 7 22 3 6 <1 2 <1 84 10
Large 13 7 2 1 1 1 0 0 16 9
Very large 3 8 0 <1 1 3 0 <1 4 10
All SUVs 130 8 44 3 15 <1 2 <1 191 12
All passenger vehicles All 695 15 265 6 76 2 8 <1 1,051 22

Frontal impacts accounted for 9 driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles in single-vehicle crashes in 2016 compared with 2 deaths per million in side impacts and fewer than 1 death per million in rear impacts.

Driver deaths in single-vehicle crashes per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old, 2016
Frontal impacts Side impacts Rear impacts Other Total
Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate
Cars 246 10 51 2 5 <1 47 2 382 15
Pickups 77 12 13 2 1 <1 18 3 117 18
SUVs 87 6 19 1 1 <1 18 1 136 9
All passenger vehicles 419 9 83 2 7 <1 84 2 645 13
Driver deaths in single-vehicle crashes per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old, 2016, by passenger vehicle sizes
Frontal impacts Side impacts Rear impacts Other Total
Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate
Cars Mini 13 11 2 2 0 <1 3 3 19 16
Small 88 10 21 2 2 <1 16 2 139 16
Midsize 96 9 17 2 3 <1 20 2 150 14
Large 37 13 10 3 0 <1 7 2 59 20
Very large 11 6 1 <1 0 <1 1 <1 14 8
All cars 246 10 51 2 5 <1 47 2 382 15
Pickups Small 5 7 0 <1 0 <1 3 4 8 11
Large 49 11 11 2 0 <1 9 2 76 17
Very large 21 16 2 2 1 <1 6 5 31 24
All pickups 77 12 13 2 1 <1 18 3 117 18
SUVs Small 32 6 6 1 0 <1 7 1 50 9
Midsize 44 5 11 1 1 <1 8 <1 69 9
Large 8 4 2 1 0 0 3 2 14 8
Very large 2 5 0 <1 0 <1 0 <1 2 5
All SUVs 87 6 19 1 1 <1 18 1 136 9
All passenger vehicles All 419 9 83 2 7 <1 84 2 645 13

Rollover

A vehicle is classified as rolling over if it tips onto its side or roof at any time during the crash. The rollover may occur subsequent to a frontal or side impact with another vehicle or a fixed object. Many rollovers occur after a vehicle leaves the roadway and may lead to occupants being ejected from the vehicle, increasing the likelihood of a fatality.

A total of 7,488 passenger vehicle occupants died in rollover crashes in 2016. Twenty-eight percent of these did not involve any other impact.

Passenger vehicle occupant deaths in rollover crashes by impact point and vehicle type, 2016
Point of initial impact Car occupants Pickup occupants SUV occupants All occupants
Number % Number % Number % Number %
Frontal 1,363 44 732 37 821 36 2,978 40
Side 584 19 308 16 359 16 1,274 17
Rear 116 4 74 4 112 5 307 4
None 619 20 654 33 785 34 2,092 28
Other 410 13 191 10 218 9 837 11
All* 3,092 100 1,959 100 2,295 100 7,488 100

Crashes in which a vehicle rolled over accounted for 31 percent of passenger vehicle occupant deaths in 2016 (52 percent of single-vehicle occupant crash deaths and 13 percent of multiple-vehicle occupant crash deaths).

Passenger vehicle occupant deaths by crash type, 1978-2016
Year Deaths in single-vehicle crashes Deaths in multiple-vehicle crashes Deaths in all crashes*
Rollover No rollover Rollover No rollover Rollover No rollover
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
1978 7,858 48 8,460 52 1,477 8 17,093 92 9,350 27 25,573 73
1979 8,010 48 8,542 52 1,666 9 16,779 91 9,691 28 25,335 72
1980 8,673 49 9,001 51 1,588 9 15,679 91 10,282 29 24,714 71
1981 8,211 50 8,188 50 1,588 9 15,692 91 9,812 29 23,899 71
1982 6,974 49 7,205 51 1,305 8 14,158 92 8,282 28 21,374 72
1983 6,951 50 7,079 50 1,256 8 13,868 92 8,207 28 20,947 72
1984 7,116 50 7,092 50 1,358 9 14,528 91 8,474 28 21,620 72
1985 6,900 50 6,779 50 1,361 8 14,805 92 8,262 28 21,586 72
1986 7,954 52 7,428 48 1,501 9 15,341 91 9,455 29 22,769 71
1987 8,162 53 7,363 47 1,629 9 15,991 91 9,791 30 23,354 70
1988 8,562 53 7,494 47 1,582 9 16,467 91 10,144 30 23,961 70
1989 8,060 52 7,558 48 1,620 9 16,361 91 9,680 29 23,919 71
1990 8,068 52 7,382 48 1,556 9 15,705 91 9,624 29 23,087 71
1991 7,749 52 7,131 48 1,523 10 14,407 90 9,272 30 21,538 70
1992 7,135 52 6,693 48 1,492 10 14,137 90 8,627 29 20,830 71
1993 7,002 51 6,821 49 1,524 9 14,647 91 8,526 28 21,468 72
1994 7,268 52 6,637 48 1,669 10 15,246 90 8,937 29 21,883 71
1995 7,802 53 6,940 47 1,708 10 15,464 90 9,510 30 22,404 70
1996 7,903 53 6,891 47 1,691 10 15,869 90 9,594 30 22,760 70
1997 7,712 53 6,743 47 1,774 10 16,114 90 9,486 29 22,857 71
1998 7,848 54 6,594 46 1,872 11 15,467 89 9,720 31 22,061 69
1999 8,255 56 6,502 44 1,839 11 15,412 89 10,094 32 21,914 68
2000 8,112 54 6,841 46 1,800 10 15,356 90 9,912 31 22,197 69
2001 8,375 55 6,786 45 1,747 10 15,030 90 10,122 32 21,816 68
2002 8,724 55 7,114 45 1,952 12 14,934 88 10,676 33 22,048 67
2003 8,462 55 6,936 45 1,940 12 14,828 88 10,402 32 21,764 68
2004 8,525 56 6,764 44 2,022 12 14,439 88 10,547 33 21,203 67
2005 8,730 57 6,713 43 2,095 13 13,902 87 10,825 34 20,630 66
2006 8,790 57 6,666 43 1,919 13 13,229 87 10,712 35 19,916 65
2007 8,429 56 6,528 44 1,844 13 12,330 87 10,274 35 18,881 65
2008 7,541 56 6,002 44 1,529 13 10,459 87 9,073 36 16,474 64
2009 6,868 55 5,538 45 1,451 13 9,630 87 8,322 35 15,185 65
2010 6,375 55 5,245 45 1,365 13 9,366 87 7,740 35 14,611 65
2011 6,148 55 5,076 45 1,293 13 8,896 87 7,441 35 13,972 65
2012 6,273 55 5,201 45 1,312 13 9,120 87 7,585 35 14,321 65
2013 5,825 53 5,168 47 1,257 12 9,111 88 7,082 33 14,279 67
2014 5,570 52 5,059 48 1,304 12 9,198 88 6,874 33 14,257 67
2015 5,802 53 5,138 47 1,458 12 10,343 88 7,260 32 15,481 68
2016 5,886 52 5,479 48 1,602 13 10,826 87 7,488 31 16,305 69

Rollover crashes accounted for 47 percent of occupant deaths in SUVs and 43 percent in pickups in 2016, compared with 22 percent of occupant deaths in cars.

Passenger vehicle occupant deaths in rollover vs. no rollover crashes, 1978-2016
Year Car occupants Pickup occupants SUV occupants
Rollover No rollover Rollover No rollover Rollover No rollover
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
1978 6,422 23 21,476 77 1,989 39 3,114 61 520 61 332 39
1979 6,416 23 21,102 77 2,222 41 3,201 59 630 67 315 33
1980 6,862 25 20,420 75 2,263 41 3,226 59 735 65 389 35
1981 6,541 25 19,865 75 2,177 42 3,059 58 663 65 358 35
1982 5,477 24 17,667 76 1,935 40 2,844 60 571 66 291 34
1983 5,381 24 17,420 76 1,939 42 2,721 58 609 66 311 34
1984 5,525 24 17,957 76 2,048 42 2,836 58 587 66 299 34
1985 5,219 23 17,857 77 2,044 42 2,848 58 671 66 353 34
1986 5,996 24 18,884 76 2,371 44 2,963 56 737 65 394 35
1987 5,997 24 19,118 76 2,598 45 3,197 55 824 65 445 35
1988 6,227 24 19,598 76 2,762 45 3,327 55 815 62 505 38
1989 5,784 23 19,485 77 2,680 45 3,336 55 847 62 526 38
1990 5,695 23 18,718 77 2,713 45 3,319 55 910 61 570 39
1991 5,443 24 17,295 76 2,593 44 3,265 56 934 61 587 39
1992 4,944 23 16,880 77 2,479 45 2,997 55 879 63 511 37
1993 4,865 22 17,252 78 2,415 43 3,196 57 971 63 581 37
1994 5,112 23 17,510 77 2,393 43 3,211 57 1,102 61 707 39
1995 5,340 23 17,784 77 2,581 43 3,392 57 1,257 63 749 37
1996 5,323 23 18,104 77 2,539 43 3,389 57 1,429 65 781 35
1997 5,143 22 18,019 78 2,479 42 3,443 58 1,516 63 900 37
1998 5,122 23 17,235 77 2,537 43 3,367 57 1,703 63 1,008 37
1999 5,174 23 16,945 77 2,699 44 3,396 56 1,901 63 1,118 37
2000 4,997 23 16,988 77 2,529 42 3,467 58 2,067 62 1,270 38
2001 5,028 23 16,576 77 2,636 43 3,485 57 2,159 61 1,362 39
2002 5,243 24 16,764 76 2,715 45 3,343 55 2,474 62 1,548 38
2003 4,916 23 16,137 77 2,509 43 3,324 57 2,658 60 1,805 40
2004 4,781 23 15,779 77 2,519 44 3,197 56 2,949 62 1,823 38
2005 4,830 24 15,062 76 2,773 46 3,267 54 2,909 60 1,938 40
2006 4,739 25 14,295 75 2,781 47 3,096 53 2,919 59 2,054 41
2007 4,400 25 13,363 75 2,660 46 3,098 54 2,929 59 2,046 41
2008 3,982 25 11,709 75 2,368 47 2,653 53 2,510 58 1,840 42
2009 3,509 25 10,593 75 2,246 48 2,473 52 2,388 56 1,866 44
2010 3,194 24 10,210 76 2,057 46 2,386 54 2,340 57 1,790 43
2011 3,058 24 9,653 76 1,973 46 2,272 54 2,259 55 1,836 45
2012 3,200 24 9,889 76 1,987 46 2,352 54 2,287 55 1,884 45
2013 2,984 23 9,720 77 1,916 45 2,299 55 2,057 50 2,041 50
2014 2,815 22 9,714 78 1,871 44 2,352 56 2,070 50 2,033 50
2015 2,999 23 10,296 77 1,916 43 2,574 57 2,211 48 2,366 52
2016 3,092 22 10,838 78 1,959 43 2,639 57 2,295 47 2,578 53

More than three-fourths of fatal rollovers are single-vehicle crashes. A total of 5,886 passenger vehicle occupants died in single-vehicle rollover crashes in 2016, 1 percent more than in 2015 and 25 percent fewer than in 1978.

Passenger vehicle occupant deaths in single-vehicle rollover crashes, 1978-2016
Year Car drivers Pickup drivers SUV drivers All passenger vehicle drivers All passenger vehicle occupants
1978 3,710 1,140 271 5,323 7,858
1979 3,610 1,263 329 5,396 8,010
1980 3,995 1,309 406 5,895 8,673
1981 3,826 1,291 364 5,687 8,211
1982 3,222 1,162 312 4,828 6,974
1983 3,169 1,120 319 4,732 6,951
1984 3,252 1,226 331 4,964 7,116
1985 3,076 1,202 360 4,773 6,900
1986 3,474 1,401 375 5,400 7,954
1987 3,427 1,535 403 5,528 8,162
1988 3,675 1,656 447 5,925 8,562
1989 3,309 1,629 463 5,551 8,060
1990 3,291 1,563 486 5,477 8,068
1991 3,092 1,595 470 5,282 7,749
1992 2,800 1,492 442 4,848 7,135
1993 2,664 1,462 494 4,729 7,002
1994 2,826 1,403 522 4,879 7,268
1995 3,005 1,556 602 5,284 7,802
1996 2,932 1,514 720 5,294 7,903
1997 2,818 1,469 754 5,178 7,712
1998 2,857 1,545 808 5,328 7,848
1999 2,866 1,667 999 5,644 8,255
2000 2,795 1,526 1,035 5,466 8,112
2001 2,836 1,651 1,063 5,654 8,375
2002 2,977 1,668 1,224 5,967 8,724
2003 2,755 1,595 1,331 5,789 8,462
2004 2,706 1,540 1,490 5,853 8,525
2005 2,761 1,711 1,478 6,074 8,730
2006 2,764 1,754 1,555 6,198 8,790
2007 2,634 1,683 1,516 5,934 8,429
2008 2,354 1,537 1,398 5,380 7,541
2009 2,101 1,478 1,273 4,913 6,868
2010 1,946 1,324 1,226 4,548 6,375
2011 1,848 1,297 1,218 4,430 6,148
2012 1,951 1,288 1,287 4,567 6,273
2013 1,805 1,219 1,112 4,181 5,825
2014 1,673 1,195 1,185 4,100 5,570
2015 1,793 1,206 1,210 4,269 5,802
2016 1,880 1,216 1,209 4,361 5,886

Single-vehicle rollover crashes accounted for 36 percent of occupant deaths in SUVs in 2016, compared with 34 percent of occupant deaths in pickups and 18 percent in cars.

Deaths in single-vehicle rollover crashes as a percent of all occupant deaths, 2016
Drivers All occupants
Single-vehicle rollover All crashes Single-vehicle rollover All crashes
Number % Number % Number % Number %
Cars Mini 74 14 524 100 98 14 690 100
Small 570 18 3,197 100 742 17 4,324 100
Midsize 722 20 3,645 100 956 19 4,974 100
Large 379 19 1,988 100 497 18 2,697 100
Very large 114 16 723 100 166 15 1,074 100
All cars 1,880 18 10,205 100 2,483 18 13,930 100
Pickups Small 309 29 1,063 100 375 30 1,267 100
Large 612 33 1,882 100 801 34 2,387 100
Very large 264 44 595 100 348 44 788 100
All pickups 1,216 33 3,662 100 1,560 34 4,598 100
SUVs Small 252 26 987 100 343 25 1,353 100
Midsize 670 40 1,679 100 920 39 2,356 100
Large 201 38 530 100 338 41 816 100
Very large 77 39 195 100 133 43 309 100
All SUVs 1,209 35 3,416 100 1,751 36 4,873 100
All passenger vehicles All 4,361 25 17,538 100 5,886 25 23,793 100
Deaths in single-vehicle rollover crashes as a percent of all driver deaths, 2016, for pickups and SUVs by 2WD and 4WD
2WD 4WD
Single-vehicle rollover All crashes Single-vehicle rollover All crashes
Number % Number % Number % Number %
Pickups Small 183 25 727 100 126 38 336 100
Large 285 28 1,019 100 327 38 863 100
Very large 41 30 136 100 223 49 459 100
All pickups 514 27 1,893 100 676 41 1,658 100
SUVs Small 84 21 397 100 168 28 590 100
Midsize 249 36 687 100 421 42 992 100
Large 94 41 230 100 107 36 300 100
Very large 28 36 77 100 49 42 118 100
All SUVs 455 33 1,391 100 749 37 2,006 100
Deaths in single-vehicle rollover crashes as percent of all occupant deaths, 2016, for pickups and SUVs by 2WD and 4WD
2WD 4WD
Single-vehicle rollover All crashes Single-vehicle rollover All crashes
Number % Number % Number % Number %
Pickups Small 230 26 871 100 145 37 396 100
Large 388 30 1,306 100 413 38 1,081 100
Very large 54 31 173 100 294 48 615 100
All pickups 677 29 2,364 100 852 41 2,093 100
SUVs Small 117 21 555 100 226 28 798 100
Midsize 356 36 985 100 564 41 1,371 100
Large 166 44 379 100 172 39 437 100
Very large 49 40 124 100 84 45 185 100
All SUVs 688 34 2,043 100 1,052 38 2,800 100

Since 1978, driver death rates for single-vehicle rollover crashes have declined across all passenger vehicle types, particularly for SUVs. Single-vehicle crashes involving rollover accounted for 5 driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles in 2016.

Driver deaths in single-vehicle rollover crashes per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old, 1978-2016
Year Car drivers Pickup drivers SUV drivers All passenger vehicles
1978 32 78 141 41
1979 31 90 155 43
1980 37 83 168 47
1981 35 76 137 44
1982 31 65 129 38
1983 29 62 126 35
1984 27 72 69 34
1985 25 61 73 32
1986 24 70 62 32
1987 24 68 67 33
1988 26 70 55 34
1989 24 68 60 33
1990 25 68 60 34
1991 23 66 54 31
1992 20 56 40 27
1993 19 50 51 26
1994 19 42 37 25
1995 20 49 45 27
1996 24 47 55 31
1997 21 44 43 27
1998 21 43 43 28
1999 20 49 47 29
2000 18 46 42 27
2001 18 53 36 27
2002 19 52 36 28
2003 16 47 34 25
2004 15 44 30 23
2005 16 46 24 23
2006 15 44 19 21
2007 14 38 16 19
2008 14 32 12 16
2009 13 28 6 13
2010 11 25 4 11
2011 8 17 4 8
2012 6 11 3 6
2013 5 11 3 5
2014 6 9 3 6
2015 6 7 3 5
2016 5 8 3 5