Fatality Facts 2016Alcohol

Alcohol

The probability of a fatal crash rises significantly after 0.05 percent blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and even more rapidly after 0.08 percent. Zador, P.L.; Krawchuck, S.; and Voas, R.B. 2000. Alcohol-related relative risk of driver fatalities and driver involvement in fatal crashes in relation to driver age and gender: an update using 1996 data. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 61:387-95. Voas, R.B.; Torres, P.; Romano, E.; and Lacey, J.H. 2012. Alcohol-related risk of driver fatalities: an update using 2007 data. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 73(3):341-350.

Drivers with very high BACs (at or above 0.15 percent) have a very high risk of dying in a crash or getting severely injured. Zador, P.L.; Krawchuck, S.; and Voas, R.B. 2000. Alcohol-related relative risk of driver fatalities and driver involvement in fatal crashes in relation to driver age and gender: an update using 1996 data. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 61:387-95. , Peck, R.C.; Gebers, M.A.; Voas, R.B.; and Romano, E. 2008. The relationship between blood alcohol concentration (BAC), age, and crash risk. Journal of Safety Research 39:311-19.All states have laws making it a crime to drive with a BAC at or above 0.08 percent.

Substantial progress was made from 1982 to the mid-1990s in reducing the numbers and proportion of fatally injured drivers with BACs at or above 0.08 percent. However, little subsequent progress has been made, and alcohol-impaired driving is still a major problem. Institute research estimated that 7,082 deaths would have been prevented in 2010 if all drivers with BACs of 0.08 percent or higher were kept off the roads. Lund, A.K.; McCartt, A.T.; and Farmer, C.M. 2012. Contribution of alcohol-impaired driving to motor-vehicle crash deaths in 2010. Arlington, VA: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety.Applying the same methods yields an estimate of 7,152 preventable deaths if all drivers with BACs of 0.08 percent or higher were kept off the roads in 2016.

At the same BAC, drivers younger than 21 are far more likely than older drivers to get into a fatal or nonfatal crash. Zador, P.L.; Krawchuck, S.; and Voas, R.B. 2000. Alcohol-related relative risk of driver fatalities and driver involvement in fatal crashes in relation to driver age and gender: an update using 1996 data. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 61:387-95. Voas, R.B.; Torres, P.; Romano, E.; and Lacey, J.H. 2012. Alcohol-related risk of driver fatalities: an update using 2007 data. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 73(3):341-350. Peck, R.C.; Gebers, M.A.; Voas, R.B.; and Romano, E. 2008. The relationship between blood alcohol concentration (BAC), age, and crash risk. Journal of Safety Research 39:311-19.The minimum drinking age is 21 throughout the United States. In addition, all states have "zero tolerance" laws that prohibit people younger than 21 from driving after drinking. In recent years, drivers younger than 21 killed in crashes are about half as likely as fatally injured drivers ages 21-30 to have a BAC of 0.08 percent or higher.

The information in this fact sheet is based on data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia with imputations for missing BACs provided by the U.S. Department of Transportation's multiple imputation model. Subramanian, R. 2002. Transitioning to multiple imputation — a new method to impute missing blood alcohol concentration (BAC) values in FARS. Report no. DOT HS-809-403. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

The following facts are based on analysis of data from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS).

Posted December 2017.

Age and gender

Among fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers in 2016, a higher proportion of males than females had BACs at or above 0.08 percent at every age. Overall, 32 percent of males and 20 percent of females had BACs at or above 0.08 percent. The percentages were highest among males ages 21-30. The lowest percentages were observed among drivers older than 70 among both men and women. Drivers younger than age 21 who were killed in crashes had far lower percentages of BACs of 0.08 percent or greater than drivers ages 21-30 who died: 21 percent versus 42 percent in 2016.

Estimated number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with BACs ≥ 0.08 percent by driver age and gender, 2016
Age Male Female Total*
Drivers killed Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08 Drivers killed Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08 Drivers killed Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08
Number Number % Number Number % Number Number %
16-20 1,088 262 24 494 76 15 1,583 339 21
21-30 3,075 1,392 45 1,099 370 34 4,177 1,762 42
31-40 1,956 864 44 759 207 27 2,716 1,072 39
41-50 1,574 600 38 639 157 25 2,213 757 34
51-60 1,678 494 29 685 135 20 2,363 629 27
61-70 1,352 246 18 603 48 8 1,956 294 15
>70 1,671 124 7 813 38 5 2,484 162 7
Total* 12,422 3,987 32 5,107 1,033 20 17,538 5,024 29

Among fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers in 2016, 24 percent of males and 15 percent of females had BACs at or above 0.15 percent.

Estimated number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with BACs ≥ 0.15 percent by driver age and gender, 2016
Age Male Female Total*
Drivers killed Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.15 Drivers killed Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.15 Drivers killed Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.15
Number Number % Number Number % Number Number %
16-20 1,088 180 17 494 49 10 1,583 230 15
21-30 3,075 1,029 33 1,099 283 26 4,177 1,313 31
31-40 1,956 664 34 759 159 21 2,716 824 30
41-50 1,574 454 29 639 128 20 2,213 582 26
51-60 1,678 379 23 685 101 15 2,363 480 20
61-70 1,352 172 13 603 30 5 1,956 203 10
>70 1,671 71 4 813 21 3 2,484 92 4
Total* 12,422 2,954 24 5,107 773 15 17,538 3,731 21

Since the 1980s the percentage of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with BACs at or above 0.08 percent has declined more among 16-20 year-olds than among older drivers. The percentage of fatally injured 16-20 year-old passenger vehicle drivers with BACs at or above 0.08 percent now is substantially lower than drivers ages 21-50.

Percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with BACs ≥ 0.08 percent by driver age, 1982-2016

Estimated number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with BACs ≥ 0.08 percent by driver age, 1982-2016
Year 16-20 years 21-30 years 31-40 years 41-50 years >50 years
Drivers killed Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08 Drivers killed Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08 Drivers killed Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08 Drivers killed Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08 Drivers killed Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08
Number Number % Number Number % Number Number % Number Number % Number Number %
1982 3,456 1,826 53 6,244 3,948 63 3,352 1,980 59 1,935 1,023 53 4,574 1,206 26
1983 3,326 1,681 51 6,053 3,859 64 3,383 1,982 59 1,847 853 46 4,615 1,108 24
1984 3,441 1,595 46 6,413 3,885 61 3,549 1,892 53 1,949 890 46 4,839 1,077 22
1985 3,227 1,260 39 6,263 3,659 58 3,430 1,842 54 2,071 914 44 4,940 957 19
1986 3,636 1,495 41 6,695 3,974 59 3,801 1,997 53 2,007 896 45 5,234 994 19
1987 3,630 1,315 36 6,802 3,975 58 4,049 2,151 53 2,128 896 42 5,402 968 18
1988 3,788 1,358 36 6,819 3,991 59 4,130 2,200 53 2,400 1,011 42 5,615 992 18
1989 3,536 1,225 35 6,475 3,675 57 4,130 2,168 52 2,558 1,100 43 5,713 1,004 18
1990 3,397 1,198 35 6,152 3,510 57 4,135 2,263 55 2,519 1,045 41 5,620 930 17
1991 3,021 1,044 35 5,623 3,183 57 3,831 2,111 55 2,479 1,049 42 5,491 833 15
1992 2,697 829 31 5,122 2,759 54 3,734 1,993 53 2,416 970 40 5,489 860 16
1993 2,805 795 28 5,065 2,658 52 3,826 2,003 52 2,475 975 39 5,737 873 15
1994 2,990 800 27 4,975 2,484 50 3,858 1,923 50 2,631 1,024 39 6,036 824 14
1995 2,983 725 24 5,081 2,585 51 4,118 2,090 51 2,854 1,147 40 6,275 918 15
1996 3,026 769 25 4,989 2,475 50 4,061 1,984 49 2,937 1,137 39 6,480 949 15
1997 3,036 774 25 4,775 2,275 48 3,913 1,947 50 2,994 1,124 38 6,870 934 14
1998 3,094 767 25 4,577 2,222 49 3,912 1,831 47 3,140 1,184 38 6,787 915 13
1999 3,261 849 26 4,653 2,260 49 3,821 1,799 47 3,131 1,176 38 6,918 891 13
2000 3,250 844 26 4,706 2,268 48 3,724 1,767 47 3,255 1,268 39 6,764 963 14
2001 3,247 823 25 4,735 2,358 50 3,643 1,700 47 3,300 1,334 40 6,847 972 14
2002 3,452 873 25 4,938 2,462 50 3,678 1,696 46 3,449 1,360 39 6,879 964 14
2003 3,260 858 26 4,852 2,308 48 3,453 1,534 44 3,420 1,352 40 7,084 1,044 15
2004 3,175 815 26 4,970 2,372 48 3,333 1,414 42 3,438 1,276 37 6,918 1,053 15
2005 2,985 734 25 5,067 2,492 49 3,372 1,526 45 3,358 1,290 38 7,079 1,036 15
2006 3,020 831 28 5,159 2,535 49 3,288 1,511 46 3,263 1,216 37 6,770 1,052 16
2007 2,728 766 28 5,028 2,592 52 2,992 1,408 47 3,060 1,211 40 6,645 1,056 16
2008 2,292 626 27 4,388 2,327 53 2,656 1,300 49 2,718 1,068 39 6,154 940 15
2009 2,049 609 30 3,870 2,020 52 2,399 1,127 47 2,623 1,107 42 5,847 923 16
2010 1,675 438 26 3,697 1,816 49 2,414 1,086 45 2,312 914 40 5,887 914 16
2011 1,722 488 28 3,612 1,747 48 2,230 987 44 2,218 871 39 5,745 962 17
2012 1,624 436 27 3,748 1,803 48 2,391 1,099 46 2,188 872 40 5,926 988 17
2013 1,381 360 26 3,671 1,788 49 2,336 1,058 45 2,138 850 40 6,018 1,049 17
2014 1,434 344 24 3,636 1,707 47 2,317 987 43 2,042 752 37 6,025 1,110 18
2015 1,591 348 22 3,860 1,658 43 2,522 1,067 42 2,121 744 35 6,491 1,090 17
2016 1,583 339 21 4,177 1,762 42 2,716 1,072 39 2,213 757 34 6,803 1,084 16

When alcohol-impaired crashes occur

Alcohol involvement in fatal crashes peaks at night. Between 9 p.m. and 6 a.m., 50 percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers in 2016 had BACs at or above 0.08 percent, compared with 17 percent during other hours.

Estimated number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with high BACs by nighttime vs. other times, 2016
Time of day Drivers killed Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08 Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.15
Number Number % Number %
9 p.m. - 6 a.m. 5,996 3,024 50 2,260 38
Other hours 11,542 2,000 17 1,472 13
Total 17,538 5,024 29 3,731 21

The three-hour period with the highest percentage of driver fatalities with BACs of 0.08 percent or higher is midnight to 3 a.m.

Estimated number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with high BACs by time of day, 2016
Time of day Drivers killed Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08 Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.15
Number Number % Number %
Midnight - 3 a.m. 2,142 1,290 60 978 46
3 a.m. - 6 a.m. 1,747 783 45 556 32
6 a.m. - 9 a.m. 2,008 288 14 207 10
9 a.m. - noon 1,855 160 9 110 6
Noon - 3 p.m. 2,426 238 10 172 7
3 p.m. - 6 p.m. 2,786 502 18 368 13
6 p.m. - 9 p.m. 2,297 745 32 565 25
9 p.m. - midnight 2,107 951 45 725 34
Total* 17,538 5,024 29 3,731 21

Forty percent of passenger vehicle drivers fatally injured on weekends (6 p.m. Friday to 6 a.m. Monday) in 2016 had BACs at or above 0.08 percent, compared with 22 percent at other times.

Estimated number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with high BACs by weekend vs. other times, 2016
Drivers killed Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08 Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.15
Number Number % Number %
Weekend (6 p.m. Friday - 6 a.m. Monday) 6,736 2,702 40 2,030 30
Other times 10,802 2,322 22 1,701 16
Total 17,538 5,024 29 3,731 21

Alcohol involvement is very high in fatal nighttime (9 p.m. to 6 a.m.) single-vehicle crashes. In 2016, 59 percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers in these crashes had BACs at or above 0.08 percent, and 45 percent had BACs at or above 0.15 percent. Seven percent had BACs of 0.01 to 0.07 percent.

Estimated number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers by BAC, time, and crash type, 2016
Drivers killed Estimated drivers killed with BACs = 0 Estimated drivers killed with 0.01 ≤ BACs ≤ 0.07 Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08 Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.15
Number Number % Number % Number % Number %
Single vehicle Night 3,713 1,269 34 248 7 2,196 59 1,659 45
Day 4,719 3,210 68 204 4 1,306 28 982 21
Multiple vehicle Night 2,283 1,344 59 112 5 828 36 601 26
Day 6,653 5,842 88 184 3 627 9 441 7