Thousands of people are killed each year in rollovers. The best way to prevent these deaths is to keep vehicles from rolling over in the first place. Electronic stability control is significantly reducing rollovers, especially fatal single-vehicle ones. When vehicles do roll, side curtain airbags help protect the people inside, and belt use is essential. However, for these safety technologies to be most effective, the roof must be able to maintain the occupant survival space when it hits the ground during a rollover. Stronger roofs crush less, reducing the risk that people will be injured by contact with the roof itself. Stronger roofs also can prevent occupants, especially those who aren't using safety belts, from being ejected through windows, windshields or doors that have broken or opened because the roof has deformed.

In the test, the strength of the roof is determined by pushing an angled metal plate down on one side of the roof at a slow but constant speed and measuring the force required to crush the roof. The force applied relative to the vehicle's weight is known as the strength-to-weight ratio. The peak strength-to-weight ratio recorded at any time before the roof is crushed 5 inches is the key measurement of roof strength.

A good rating requires a strength-to-weight ratio of at least 4. In other words, the roof must withstand a force of at least 4 times the vehicle's weight before the plate crushes the roof by 5 inches. For an acceptable rating, the minimum required strength-to-weight ratio is 3.25. For a marginal rating, it is 2.5. Anything lower than that is poor.

The figure below shows sample results for two vehicles — one rated good and one rated poor. Peak force for Vehicle A is 7.26. Since that number is higher than 4, the vehicle is rated good. Peak force for Vehicle B is 2.31. Since that number is lower than 2.5, the vehicle is rated poor.

Strength-to-weight-ratio graph image

The following video shows how the roof strength test is conducted. In this test of the 2010 Buick LaCrosse, the peak force is 19,571 pounds for a strength-to-weight ratio of 4.90 and a good rating. The playback speed of this video has been increased. The plate normally crushes at a rate of about 1/8 inch per second.

In every test, the roof is crushed 5 inches. What varies — and can't be seen in a video — is the force used by the machine to achieve that degree of crush. To demonstrate how roof strength can vary and what those differences mean for people inside a vehicle during a rollover, IIHS conducted a demonstration in which two vehicles with different roof strength ratings were subjected to identical force. This video shows what happened when the 2009 Volkswagen Tiguan, rated good for roof strength, and the 2008 Kia Sportage, rated poor, were each subjected to a crush force of 15,000 pounds.