Bigger, heavier vehicles protect their occupants better.
By far the largest number of motor vehicle crash deaths are occupants of passenger vehicles including cars, minivans, pickups, SUVs and cargo/large passenger vans. The likelihood of crash death varies markedly among these vehicle types according to size. Small/light vehicles have less structure and size to absorb crash energy, so crash forces on occupants will be higher. People in lighter vehicles are at a disadvantage in collisions with heavier vehicles.
Kahane, C.J. 2012. Relationships between fatality risk, mass, and footprint in model year 2000-2007 passenger cars and LTVs — final report. Report no. DOT HS-811-665. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Pickups and SUVs are proportionally more likely than cars to be in fatal single-vehicle crashes, especially rollovers. However, pickups and SUVs generally are heavier than cars, so occupant deaths in SUVs and pickups are less likely to occur in multiple-vehicle crashes.
The following facts are based on analysis of data from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and The Polk Company's National Vehicle Population Profile.
Posted February 2016.
Passenger vehicle occupant deaths represented 65 percent of the 32,675 motor vehicle crash deaths in 2014.
A total of 21,102 passenger vehicle occupants died in 2014, 31 percent fewer than in 1975. However, as pickups and SUVs have become more popular, the distribution of vehicle types in fatal crashes has changed. Car occupant deaths have declined 51 percent since 1975, while pickup occupant deaths have risen 15 percent and SUV occupant deaths are 9 times as high.
A total of 15,479 passenger vehicle drivers died in 2014, 1 percent fewer than in 2013 and 20 percent fewer than in 1975. Fifty-eight percent of passenger vehicle driver deaths in 2014 were car drivers, 22 percent were pickup drivers, and 19 percent were SUV drivers.
Frontal impacts accounted for 53 percent of passenger vehicle occupant deaths in 2014. Side impacts accounted for another 25 percent of passenger vehicle occupant deaths.
Forty-three percent of car occupant deaths in 2014 occurred in single-vehicle crashes and 57 percent occurred in multiple-vehicle crashes. In contrast, single-vehicle crashes accounted for 61 percent of SUV occupant deaths and 62 percent of pickup occupant deaths.
Twenty-six percent of passenger vehicle occupants killed in 2014 were younger than 25.
Seventy-three percent of passenger vehicle occupants killed in 2014 were drivers; 71 percent of these were males.
Eight percent of passenger vehicle occupant deaths were in the second or third row; 27 percent of these were younger than 13.
Computing driver death rates per million registered passenger vehicles allows for comparisons of fatal crash risk across vehicle groups. The computed rates reflect the influence of vehicle designs plus their patterns of use and the demographics of their drivers. Driver death rates are based on 1-3-year-old vehicles only so as to minimize the effects of vehicle aging. Rates based on fewer than 120,000 vehicle registrations are considered unreliable and are not included.
Since 1978, the overall rates of driver and occupant deaths per million registered vehicles have declined across all passenger vehicle types. Declines in death rates have been largest for SUV occupants.
Historically, the rates of driver deaths per million registered vehicles have been higher for the smaller and lighter vehicles. This was true again in 2014, but the differences were less extreme than they used to be.
Overall in 2014, there were 13 driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles in single-vehicle crashes and 18 driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles in multiple-vehicle crashes. Pickups had the highest number of deaths per registered vehicle in single-vehicle crashes (18 per million) and cars had the highest number of deaths per registered vehicle in multiple-vehicle crashes (22 per million). SUVs had the lowest number of deaths per registered vehicle both in single-vehicle crashes (7 per million) and in multiple-vehicle crashes (11 per million).
Frontal impacts accounted for 12 driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles in multiple-vehicle crashes in 2014 compared with 5 deaths per million in side impacts and 1 death per million in rear impacts.
Frontal impacts accounted for 9 driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles in single-vehicle crashes in 2014 compared with 2 deaths per million in side impacts and fewer than 1 death per million in rear impacts.
A vehicle is classified as rolling over if it tips onto its side or roof at any time during the crash. The rollover may occur subsequent to a frontal or side impact with another vehicle or a fixed object. Many rollovers occur after a vehicle leaves the roadway and may lead to occupants being ejected from the vehicle, increasing the likelihood of a fatality.
A total of 6,863 passenger vehicle occupants died in rollover crashes in 2014. Twenty-eight percent of these did not involve any other impact.
Crashes in which a vehicle rolled over accounted for 33 percent of passenger vehicle occupant deaths in 2014 (52 percent of single-vehicle occupant crash deaths and 12 percent of multiple-vehicle occupant crash deaths).
Since 1978 pickups and SUVs have a consistently higher percentage of rollover deaths than cars.
More than three-fourths of fatal rollovers are single-vehicle crashes.
Deutermann, W. 2002. Characteristics of fatal rollover crashes. Report no. DOT HS-809-438. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
A total of 5,565 passenger vehicle occupants died in single-vehicle rollover crashes in 2014, 4 percent fewer than in 2013 and 29 percent fewer than in 1978.
Single-vehicle rollover crashes accounted for 41 percent of occupant deaths in SUVs in 2014, compared with 36 percent of occupant deaths in pickups and 18 percent in cars.
Since 1978, driver death rates for single-vehicle rollover crashes have declined across all passenger vehicle types, particularly for SUVs. Single-vehicle crashes involving rollover accounted for 6 driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles in 2014.
©1996-2016, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Highway Loss Data Institute | www.iihs.org
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