There are more drivers 70 and over today, but they crash less often than they used to.
Motor vehicle crashes account for less than 1 percent of fatalities among people 70 and older; heart disease and cancer are the leading causes of death. National Safety Council. 2009. Injury facts, 2009 edition. Itasca, IL: National Safety Council. People ages 70 and older are less likely to be licensed to drive compared with younger people, and drivers 70 and older also drive fewer miles. However, older drivers are keeping their licenses longer and driving more miles than in the past.
Per mile traveled, fatal crash rates increase starting at age 75 and increase markedly after age 80. This is largely due to increased susceptibility to injury, particularly chest injuries, and medical complications among older drivers rather than an increased tendency to get into crashes. Li, G.; Braver, E.R.; and Chen, L.H. 2003.Fragility versus excessive crash involvement as determinants of high death rates per vehicle-mile of travel among older drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention 35:227-35. Fragility begins to increase at ages 60-64. At age 75, older drivers begin to be markedly overinvolved in crashes, but fragility is the predominant factor explaining the elevated deaths per mile traveled among older drivers. Li, G.; Braver, E.R.; and Chen, L.H. 2003.Fragility versus excessive crash involvement as determinants of high death rates per vehicle-mile of travel among older drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention 35:227-35.
The following facts are based on analysis of data from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS).
A total of 4,268 people ages 70 and older died in motor vehicle crashes in 2008. This is 27 percent fewer than in 1997 when deaths peaked, but a 13 percent increase since 1975. Deaths of older people were 8 percent lower in 2008 than in 2007. The rate of fatalities per capita among older people has decreased 40 percent since 1975 and is now at its lowest level during this period.
Motor vehicle crash deaths and deaths per 100,000 people 70 and older, 1975-2008
Seventy-nine percent of motor vehicle crash deaths in 2008 involving people 70 and older were passenger vehicle occupants, and 14 percent were pedestrians. Since 1997, deaths of older passenger vehicle occupants have declined 29 percent, while deaths of older pedestrians have declined 36 percent. Although few older adults are killed while riding motorcycles, this number has risen. More than five times as many people 70 years and older were killed on motorcycles in 2008 than in 1997.
In 2008, 62 percent of the deaths in crashes involving drivers 70 and older were the older driver themselves, and 16 percent were their passengers. Twenty-two percent of deaths were occupants of other vehicles or motorcyclists, bicyclists, or pedestrians. In contrast, in crashes involving at least one driver younger than 30, 43 percent of the deaths were the drivers younger than 30, 23 percent were their passengers, and 34 percent were occupants of other vehicles or motorcyclists, bicyclists, or pedestrians.
In 2008 motor vehicle crash deaths per capita among males and females began to increase markedly starting at ages 70-74. Across all age groups males had substantially higher death rates than females.
Motor vehicle crash deaths per 100,000 people by age and gender, 2008
Based on travel data collected between April 2001 and March 2002, the rate of passenger vehicle fatal crash involvements per 100 million miles traveled was higher for drivers 80 and older than for drivers of any other age group except teenagers. Drivers 85 and older had the highest rate of fatal crash involvement. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. 2008. [Unpublished analysis of data from the US Department of Transportation's Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the National Household Travel Survey]. Arlington, VA.
Passenger vehicle fatal crash involvements per 100 million miles traveled by driver age, April 2001 to March 2002
Among passenger vehicle drivers involved in fatal crashes in 2008, the proportion in multiple-vehicle crashes at intersections increased as driver age increased starting at ages 50-54. Multiple-vehicle crashes at intersections accounted for 41 percent of fatal crash involvements among drivers 80 and older.
The rate of pedestrian deaths per 100,000 people in 2008 was higher for people 70 and older combined (2.2 per 100,000) than for those younger than 70 combined (1.4 per 100,000). For all age groups the rate of pedestrian deaths per capita was higher for males than females, although there was little difference among those younger than age 13.
Six percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers 70 years and older in 2008 had blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) at or above 0.08 percent, compared with 15 percent for drivers ages 60-69 and 41 percent for drivers ages 16 to 59.
©1996-2016, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Highway Loss Data Institute | www.iihs.org
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