State by state | 2016

The number and types of motor vehicle crash deaths differ widely among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. A state's population has an obvious effect on the number of motor vehicle deaths. Fatality rates per capita and per vehicle miles traveled provide a way of examining motor vehicle deaths relative to the population and amount of driving. However, many factors can affect these rates, including types of vehicles driven, travel speeds, rates of licensure, state traffic laws, emergency care capabilities, weather, and topography.

The following facts are based on analysis of data from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS).

Posted December 2017.

Fatal crash totals

There were 34,439 fatal motor vehicle crashes in the United States in 2016 in which 37,461 deaths occurred. This resulted in 11.6 deaths per 100,000 people and 1.16 deaths per 100 million miles traveled. The fatality rate per 100,000 people ranged from 4.0 in the District of Columbia to 23.1 in Mississippi.  The death rate per 100 million miles traveled ranged from 0.66 in Massachusetts, Minnesota, and Rhode Island to 1.88 in South Carolina. Federal Highway Administration. 2016. Traffic Volume Trends, January-December 2016. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Available: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/travel_monitoring/tvt.cfm

Population, fatal motor vehicle crashes, motor vehicle crash deaths and motor vehicle crash death rates per state, 2016
StatePopulationVehicle miles traveled (millions)Fatal crashesDeathsDeaths per 100,000 populationDeaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled
Alabama 4,863,300 69,553 937 1,038 21.3 1.49
Alaska 741,894 5,030 78 84 11.3 1.67
Arizona 6,931,071 66,859 865 962 13.9 1.44
Arkansas 2,988,248 36,093 488 545 18.2 1.51
California 39,250,017 366,402 3,357 3,623 9.2 0.99
Colorado 5,540,545 52,993 558 608 11.0 1.15
Connecticut 3,576,452 31,987 281 293 8.2 0.92
Delaware 952,065 10,146 116 119 12.5 1.17
District of Columbia 681,170 3,553 26 27 4.0 0.76
Florida 20,612,439 220,083 2,933 3,174 15.4 1.44
Georgia 10,310,371 120,569 1,422 1,554 15.1 1.29
Hawaii 1,428,557 11,610 109 120 8.4 1.03
Idaho 1,683,140 17,677 232 253 15.0 1.43
Illinois 12,801,539 109,208 1,003 1,082 8.5 0.99
Indiana 6,633,053 83,322 768 821 12.4 0.99
Iowa 3,134,693 32,325 356 404 12.9 1.25
Kansas 2,907,289 32,122 381 429 14.8 1.34
Kentucky 4,436,974 49,491 763 834 18.8 1.69
Louisiana 4,681,666 49,468 704 757 16.2 1.53
Maine 1,331,479 14,979 151 161 12.1 1.07
Maryland 6,016,447 58,484 472 505 8.4 0.86
Massachusetts 6,811,779 59,004 359 389 5.7 0.66
Michigan 9,928,300 104,814 980 1,064 10.7 1.02
Minnesota 5,519,952 59,620 357 392 7.1 0.66
Mississippi 2,988,726 42,285 628 690 23.1 1.63
Missouri 6,093,000 75,713 868 945 15.5 1.25
Montana 1,042,520 13,181 171 190 18.2 1.44
Nebraska 1,907,116 20,818 194 218 11.4 1.05
Nevada 2,940,058 27,009 303 328 11.2 1.21
New Hampshire 1,334,795 13,510 130 136 10.2 1.01
New Jersey 8,944,469 76,941 569 601 6.7 0.78
New Mexico 2,081,015 26,348 358 402 19.3 1.53
New York 19,745,289 136,626 965 1,025 5.2 0.75
North Carolina 10,146,788 115,395 1,348 1,450 14.3 1.26
North Dakota 757,952 10,176 102 113 14.9 1.11
Ohio 11,614,373 119,046 1,053 1,132 9.7 0.95
Oklahoma 3,923,561 48,837 624 683 17.4 1.40
Oregon 4,093,465 37,492 446 495 12.1 1.32
Pennsylvania 12,784,227 102,775 1,088 1,188 9.3 1.16
Rhode Island 1,056,426 7,766 48 51 4.8 0.66
South Carolina 4,961,119 54,025 936 1,015 20.5 1.88
South Dakota 865,454 9,636 103 116 13.4 1.20
Tennessee 6,651,194 77,657 966 1,041 15.7 1.34
Texas 27,862,596 263,414 3,407 3,776 13.6 1.43
Utah 3,051,217 30,038 259 281 9.2 0.94
Vermont 624,594 7,325 57 62 9.9 0.85
Virginia 8,411,808 84,602 722 760 9.0 0.90
Washington 7,288,000 61,880 504 537 7.4 0.87
West Virginia 1,831,102 19,620 250 269 14.7 1.37
Wisconsin 5,778,708 63,575 544 607 10.5 0.95
Wyoming 585,501 9,595 100 112 19.1 1.17
U.S. total 323,127,513 3,220,677 34,439 37,461 11.6 1.16

Deaths by road user

In 2016, the types of motor vehicle crash deaths varied across states. For example, Wyoming had one of the highest percentage of deaths involving occupants of SUVs and pickups (44 percent) and the lowest proportion of deaths including car occupants (18 percent).  In contrast, Massachusetts had one of the highest proportions of car occupant deaths (43 percent), a relatively high proportion of pedestrian deaths (21 percent), and a relatively low percentage of deaths involving SUV or pickup occupants (17 percent).  The highest percentage of motorcyclist deaths occurred in the District of Columbia (22 percent).  Both the District of Columbia and New York had the highest  percentage of pedestrian deaths (30 percent each).

Motor vehicle crash deaths by road user type and state, 2016
StateCar occupants Pickup and SUV occupantsLarge truck occupants Motorcyclists Pedestrians Bicyclists Total*
Number%Number%Number%Number%Number%Number%Number%
Alabama 398 38 356 34 32 3 102 10 111 11 2 0 1,038 100
Alaska 16 19 35 42 2 2 5 6 12 14 1 1 84 100
Arizona 271 28 218 23 14 1 138 14 190 20 31 3 962 100
Arkansas 191 35 192 35 11 2 73 13 44 8 3 1 545 100
California 1,330 37 586 16 47 1 535 15 867 24 146 4 3,623 100
Colorado 199 33 159 26 15 2 121 20 79 13 16 3 608 100
Connecticut 120 41 48 16 6 2 47 16 54 18 5 2 293 100
Delaware 45 38 27 23 1 1 13 11 27 23 2 2 119 100
District of Columbia 8 30 4 1500 6 22 8 30 1 4 27 100
Florida 1,077 34 597 19 29 1 545 17 652 21 138 4 3,174 100
Georgia 587 38 445 29 32 2 163 10 232 15 29 2 1,554 100
Hawaii 42 35 20 17 1 1 15 12 29 2400 120 100
Idaho 78 31 109 43 4 2 22 9 17 7 6 2 253 100
Illinois 436 40 260 24 20 2 146 13 148 14 20 2 1,082 100
Indiana 344 42 223 27 14 2 88 11 85 10 19 2 821 100
Iowa 166 41 124 31 10 2 59 15 22 5 8 2 404 100
Kansas 163 38 145 34 13 3 44 10 41 10 5 1 429 100
Kentucky 370 44 213 26 13 2 104 12 81 10 9 1 834 100
Louisiana 266 35 221 29 8 1 93 12 127 17 22 3 757 100
Maine 64 40 55 3400 17 11 17 11 4 2 161 100
Maryland 199 39 82 16 9 2 73 14 104 21 16 3 505 100
Massachusetts 168 43 67 17 2 1 40 10 80 21 10 3 389 100
Michigan 402 38 254 24 12 1 133 12 162 15 38 4 1,064 100
Minnesota 151 39 98 25 8 2 53 14 58 15 7 2 392 100
Mississippi 288 42 258 37 13 2 50 7 58 8 5 1 690 100
Missouri 392 41 271 29 19 2 120 13 96 10 8 1 945 100
Montana 56 29 88 46 5 3 17 9 11 6 3 2 190 100
Nebraska 84 39 81 37 12 6 19 9 12 6 1 0 218 100
Nevada 92 28 62 19 4 1 62 19 80 24 6 2 328 100
New Hampshire 54 40 41 3000 18 13 17 12 2 1 136 100
New Jersey 231 38 97 16 6 1 68 11 162 27 18 3 601 100
New Mexico 113 28 153 38 4 1 45 11 73 18 4 1 402 100
New York 337 33 166 16 11 1 130 13 304 30 37 4 1,025 100
North Carolina 605 42 377 26 20 1 148 10 200 14 17 1 1,450 100
North Dakota 36 32 41 36 9 8 12 11 7 6 3 3 113 100
Ohio 489 43 244 22 14 1 195 17 134 12 18 2 1,132 100
Oklahoma 213 31 247 36 23 3 86 13 87 13 4 1 683 100
Oregon 202 41 136 27 8 2 54 11 72 15 10 2 495 100
Pennsylvania 511 43 236 20 24 2 187 16 169 14 16 1 1,188 100
Rhode Island 18 35 12 24 1 2 4 8 14 27 2 4 51 100
South Carolina 374 37 251 25 17 2 146 14 144 14 25 2 1,015 100
South Dakota 33 28 48 41 2 2 21 18 6 500 116 100
Tennessee 436 42 293 28 17 2 141 14 97 9 9 1 1,041 100
Texas 1,236 33 1,140 30 91 2 483 13 672 18 65 2 3,776 100
Utah 94 33 80 28 4 1 40 14 35 12 5 2 281 100
Vermont 29 47 16 2600 11 18 4 6 1 2 62 100
Virginia 320 42 180 24 24 3 71 9 122 16 10 1 760 100
Washington 204 38 125 23 10 2 81 15 84 16 15 3 537 100
West Virginia 94 35 90 33 6 2 29 11 24 9 1 0 269 100
Wisconsin 278 46 151 25 7 1 81 13 51 8 11 2 607 100
Wyoming 20 18 49 44 6 5 22 20 5 4 1 1 112 100
U.S. total 13,930 37 9,471 25 660 2 4,976 13 5,987 16 835 2 37,461 100

Crash types

Nationwide, 55 percent of motor vehicle crash deaths in 2016 occurred in single-vehicle crashes. The largest proportion of deaths in single-vehicle crashes occurred in Montana, New Hampshire and Vermont (73 percent each), whereas the smallest proportion occurred in Minnesota (44 percent). 

Deaths by crash type and state, 2016
StateSingle-vehicle Multiple-vehicle All crashes
Number%Number%Number%
Alabama 604 58 434 42 1,038 100
Alaska 56 67 28 33 84 100
Arizona 549 57 413 43 962 100
Arkansas 293 54 252 46 545 100
California 2,063 57 1,560 43 3,623 100
Colorado 341 56 267 44 608 100
Connecticut 172 59 121 41 293 100
Delaware 67 56 52 44 119 100
District of Columbia 18 67 9 33 27 100
Florida 1,670 53 1,504 47 3,174 100
Georgia 844 54 710 46 1,554 100
Hawaii 74 62 46 38 120 100
Idaho 165 65 88 35 253 100
Illinois 574 53 508 47 1,082 100
Indiana 421 51 400 49 821 100
Iowa 198 49 206 51 404 100
Kansas 223 52 206 48 429 100
Kentucky 436 52 398 48 834 100
Louisiana 412 54 345 46 757 100
Maine 107 66 54 34 161 100
Maryland 271 54 234 46 505 100
Massachusetts 246 63 143 37 389 100
Michigan 530 50 534 50 1,064 100
Minnesota 173 44 219 56 392 100
Mississippi 405 59 285 41 690 100
Missouri 528 56 417 44 945 100
Montana 139 73 51 27 190 100
Nebraska 110 50 108 50 218 100
Nevada 185 56 143 44 328 100
New Hampshire 99 73 37 27 136 100
New Jersey 364 61 237 39 601 100
New Mexico 246 61 156 39 402 100
New York 631 62 394 38 1,025 100
North Carolina 812 56 638 44 1,450 100
North Dakota 67 59 46 41 113 100
Ohio 576 51 556 49 1,132 100
Oklahoma 370 54 313 46 683 100
Oregon 262 53 233 47 495 100
Pennsylvania 638 54 550 46 1,188 100
Rhode Island 35 69 16 31 51 100
South Carolina 567 56 448 44 1,015 100
South Dakota 73 63 43 37 116 100
Tennessee 570 55 471 45 1,041 100
Texas 1,901 50 1,875 50 3,776 100
Utah 156 56 125 44 281 100
Vermont 45 73 17 27 62 100
Virginia 469 62 291 38 760 100
Washington 302 56 235 44 537 100
West Virginia 166 62 103 38 269 100
Wisconsin 332 55 275 45 607 100
Wyoming 62 55 50 45 112 100
U.S. total 20,617 55 16,844 45 37,461 100

Alcohol involvement

Some states report blood alcohol concentration (BAC) for only a small percentage of passenger vehicle drivers. If BAC is missing for a driver, it is estimated by the U.S. Department of Transportation's multiple imputation model. Subramanian, R. 2002. Transitioning to multiple imputation — a new method to impute missing blood alcohol concentration (BAC) values in FARS. Report no. DOT HS-809-403. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. However, BAC information is most precise in states that report a high percentage of BACs. In the following table, estimated percentages of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with BACs at or above 0.08 percent are shown only for states in which BAC reporting for fatally injured drivers was 70 percent or higher. Estimated percentages are based on known BAC when available and imputed BAC for the remaining drivers.

For the nation in 2016, BAC was reported for 61 percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers. Alaska reported BACs for 97 percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers, while Alabama reported BACs for 2 percent.

Thirty-three states and The District of Columbia had BAC reporting rates of at least 70 percent.  Among these states, Montana had the highest estimated percentage of fatally injured drivers with BACs of 0.08 percent or higher (50 percent), and Utah had the lowest (20 percent).

Estimated number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with BAC ≥ 0.08 percent by state, 2016
StateTotal drivers killedDrivers killed with known BAC resultsEstimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08
NumberNumber%Number%
Alabama 559 10 2
Alaska 39 38 97 15 38
Arizona 330 238 72 72 22
Arkansas 304 221 73 67 22
California 1,401 470 34
Colorado 262 222 85 85 32
Connecticut 137 104 76 50 36
Delaware 55 44 80 19 34
District of Columbia 10 7 70 4 42
Florida 1,215 636 52
Georgia 814 501 62
Hawaii 44 32 73 15 35
Idaho 135 85 63
Illinois 527 353 67
Indiana 441 150 34
Iowa 199 112 56
Kansas 246 71 29
Kentucky 443 336 76 97 22
Louisiana 366 298 81 124 34
Maine 94 53 56
Maryland 223 167 75 65 29
Massachusetts 187 150 80 47 25
Michigan 477 261 55
Minnesota 202 163 81 54 27
Mississippi 423 219 52
Missouri 507 404 80 122 24
Montana 102 83 81 51 50
Nebraska 126 103 82 34 27
Nevada 108 88 81 30 28
New Hampshire 76 65 86 21 28
New Jersey 255 198 78 72 28
New Mexico 170 140 82 45 26
New York 386 246 64
North Carolina 763 531 70 176 23
North Dakota 57 44 77 28 48
Ohio 560 460 82 161 29
Oklahoma 355 327 92 96 27
Oregon 256 194 76 78 31
Pennsylvania 563 271 48
Rhode Island 22 21 95 10 48
South Carolina 484 386 80 176 36
South Dakota 58 53 91 24 42
Tennessee 561 343 61
Texas 1,722 811 47
Utah 112 89 79 22 20
Vermont 32 23 72 13 41
Virginia 397 355 89 120 30
Washington 234 206 88 71 30
West Virginia 145 132 91 35 24
Wisconsin 310 230 74 98 32
Wyoming 44 23 52
U.S. total 17,538 10,767 61 5,024 29

Restraint use

Based on daytime observational surveys conducted by the states, the rate of safety belt use among front seat passenger vehicle occupants in 2016 ranged from 70 percent in New Hampshire to 97 percent in California and Georgia. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 2017. Seat belt use in 2016 — use rates in the states and territories. Report no. DOT HS-812-417. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Rates of restraint use among fatally injured motor vehicle occupants will be lower than observed restraint use because unrestrained occupants are more likely than restrained occupants to be fatally injured in a crash. Restrained fatally injured occupants include occupants in child safety seats and occupants restrained by safety belts. Only one state, California  had at least 60 percent restraint use among fatally injured passenger vehicle occupants.  In contrast, five states — Alaska, New Hampshire, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, and the District of Columbia — had use rates below 30 percent. 

Rates of observed daytime front seat safety belt use and number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle occupants by restraint use and state, 2016
State and percent of observed safety belt use Unrestrained fatally injured occupants Restrained fatally injured occupants Unknown restraint status of fatally injured occupantsTotal fatally injured passenger vehicle occupants
Number%Number%Number%Number
Alabama 92 413 54 288 38 60 8 761
Alaska 89 37 64 17 29 4 7 58
Arizona 88 244 48 200 39 68 13 512
Arkansas 75 194 49 166 42 33 8 393
California 97 587 30 1,212 62 148 8 1,947
Colorado 84 187 51 168 46 10 3 365
Connecticut 89 63 37 73 43 34 20 170
Delaware 91 31 42 36 49 6 8 73
District of Columbia94 6 50 2 17 4 33 12
Florida 90 747 44 876 51 81 5 1,704
Georgia 97 477 45 482 46 92 9 1,051
Hawaii 95 22 35 22 35 19 30 63
Idaho 83 114 59 68 35 10 5 192
Illinois 93 269 38 360 51 79 11 708
Indiana 92 251 43 256 44 71 12 578
Iowa 94 112 38 154 52 29 10 295
Kansas 87 150 48 143 46 20 6 313
Kentucky 87 322 54 271 4600 593
Louisiana 88 227 46 213 43 50 10 490
Maine 86 61 50 57 47 3 2 121
Maryland 91 113 39 151 52 28 10 292
Massachusetts 78 106 44 73 30 63 26 242
Michigan 95 198 30 356 54 110 17 664
Minnesota 93 73 29 144 57 35 14 252
Mississippi 78 300 55 247 45 1 <1 548
Missouri 81 385 58 234 35 49 7 668
Montana 76 94 64 46 32 6 4 146
Nebraska 83 86 51 61 36 21 12 168
Nevada 89 74 47 70 45 13 8 157
New Hampshire 70 69 72 25 26 2 2 96
New Jersey 93 148 44 179 53 11 3 338
New Mexico 92 136 51 120 45 13 5 269
New York 92 152 29 288 56 76 15 516
North Carolina 92 432 43 523 52 45 4 1,000
North Dakota 83 48 62 21 27 8 10 77
Ohio 84 355 47 327 44 67 9 749
Oklahoma 87 227 48 201 43 43 9 471
Oregon 96 77 22 194 57 72 21 343
Pennsylvania 85 403 53 250 33 107 14 760
Rhode Island 88 15 50 14 47 1 3 30
South Carolina 94 315 50 286 45 32 5 633
South Dakota 74 58 72 20 25 3 4 81
Tennessee 89 339 46 348 47 53 7 740
Texas 92 935 39 1,247 52 217 9 2,399
Utah 88 77 44 83 48 14 8 174
Vermont 80 20 44 24 53 1 2 45
Virginia 79 297 58 208 40 10 2 515
Washington 95 109 33 173 52 50 15 332
West Virginia 87 80 43 72 39 34 18 186
Wisconsin 88 184 43 204 47 43 10 431
Wyoming 81 49 68 21 29 2 3 72
U.S. total 90 10,468 44 11,274 47 2,051 9 23,793

Rural versus urban

Nationwide, 50 percent of motor vehicle deaths in 2016 occurred in rural areas. The percentage on rural roads was 98 percent in Mississippi, 94 percent in North Dakota, and 89 percent in Montana and South Dakota compared with 4 percent in Massachusetts, 13 percent in Connecticut, 14 percent in New Jersey, and none in the District of Columbia.

Number and percent of motor vehicle crash deaths by land use and state, 2016
StateUrban Rural UnknownTotal
Number%Number%Number%Number
Alabama 326 31 647 62 65 6 1,038
Alaska 30 36 53 63 1 1 84
Arizona 618 64 338 35 6 1 962
Arkansas 183 34 362 6600 545
California 1,988 55 1,519 42 116 3 3,623
Colorado 342 56 266 4400 608
Connecticut 251 86 37 13 5 2 293
Delaware 50 42 69 5800 119
District of Columbia 26 9600 1 4 27
Florida 1,757 55 1,388 44 29 1 3,174
Georgia 951 61 603 3900 1,554
Hawaii 94 78 25 21 1 1 120
Idaho 47 19 195 77 11 4 253
Illinois 642 59 438 40 2 <1 1,082
Indiana 280 34 540 66 1 <1 821
Iowa 98 24 306 7600 404
Kansas 138 32 289 67 2 <1 429
Kentucky 226 27 607 73 1 <1 834
Louisiana 385 51 368 49 4 1 757
Maine 28 17 130 81 3 2 161
Maryland 393 78 106 21 6 1 505
Massachusetts 372 96 17 400 389
Michigan 634 60 424 40 6 1 1,064
Minnesota 159 41 232 59 1 <1 392
Mississippi 15 2 675 9800 690
Missouri 393 42 552 5800 945
Montana 19 10 170 89 1 1 190
Nebraska 52 24 166 7600 218
Nevada 230 70 95 29 3 1 328
New Hampshire 61 45 75 5500 136
New Jersey 512 85 85 14 4 1 601
New Mexico 172 43 226 56 4 1 402
New York 569 56 456 4400 1,025
North Carolina 543 37 902 62 5 <1 1,450
North Dakota 7 6 106 9400 113
Ohio 614 54 508 45 10 1 1,132
Oklahoma 257 38 425 62 1 <1 683
Oregon 154 31 341 6900 495
Pennsylvania 541 46 647 5400 1,188
Rhode Island 41 80 10 2000 51
South Carolina 403 40 612 6000 1,015
South Dakota 13 11 103 8900 116
Tennessee 573 55 464 45 4 <1 1,041
Texas 1,406 37 1,459 39 911 24 3,776
Utah 160 57 121 4300 281
Vermont 10 16 52 8400 62
Virginia 281 37 477 63 2 <1 760
Washington 298 55 238 44 1 <1 537
West Virginia 99 37 169 63 1 <1 269
Wisconsin 194 32 406 67 7 1 607
Wyoming 21 19 91 8100 112
U.S. total 17,656 47 18,590 50 1,215 3 37,461

References