Alcohol | 2012

The probability of a fatal crash rises significantly after 0.05 percent blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and even more rapidly after 0.08 percent. Zador, P.L.; Krawchuck, S.; and Voas, R.B. 2000. Alcohol-related relative risk of driver fatalities and driver involvement in fatal crashes in relation to driver age and gender: an update using 1996 data. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 61:387-95. Voas, R.B.; Torres, P.; Romano, E.; and Lacey, J.H. 2012. Alcohol-related risk of driver fatalities: an update using 2007 data. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 73(3):341-350. Drivers with very high BACs (at or above 0.15 percent) have a very high risk of dying in a crash or getting severely injured. Zador, P.L.; Krawchuck, S.; and Voas, R.B. 2000. Alcohol-related relative risk of driver fatalities and driver involvement in fatal crashes in relation to driver age and gender: an update using 1996 data. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 61:387-95. , Peck, R.C.; Gebers, M.A.; Voas, R.B.; and Romano, E. 2008. The relationship between blood alcohol concentration (BAC), age, and crash risk. Journal of Safety Research 39:311-19. All states have laws defining impairment as driving with a BAC at or above 0.08 percent.

Substantial progress was made from 1982 to the mid-1990s in reducing the numbers and proportion of fatally injured drivers with BACs at or above 0.08 percent. However, little subsequent progress has been made, and alcohol-impaired driving is still a major problem. Institute research estimated that 7,082 deaths would have been prevented in 2010 if all drivers with BACs of 0.08 percent or higher were kept off the roads. Lund, A.K.; McCartt, A.T.; and Farmer, C.M. 2012. Contribution of alcohol-impaired driving to motor-vehicle crash deaths in 2010. Arlington, VA: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Applying the same methods yields an estimate of 7,132 preventable deaths if all drivers with BACs of 0.08 percent or higher were kept off the roads in 2012.

At the same BAC, drivers younger than 21 are far more likely than older drivers to get into a fatal or nonfatal crash. Zador, P.L.; Krawchuck, S.; and Voas, R.B. 2000. Alcohol-related relative risk of driver fatalities and driver involvement in fatal crashes in relation to driver age and gender: an update using 1996 data. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 61:387-95. Voas, R.B.; Torres, P.; Romano, E.; and Lacey, J.H. 2012. Alcohol-related risk of driver fatalities: an update using 2007 data. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 73(3):341-350. Peck, R.C.; Gebers, M.A.; Voas, R.B.; and Romano, E. 2008. The relationship between blood alcohol concentration (BAC), age, and crash risk. Journal of Safety Research 39:311-19. The minimum drinking age is 21 throughout the United States. In addition, all states have "zero tolerance" laws that prohibit people younger than 21 from driving after drinking. In recent years, drivers younger than 21 killed in crashes are about half as likely as fatally injured drivers ages 21-30 to have a BAC of 0.08 percent or higher.

The information in this fact sheet is based on data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia with imputations for missing BACs provided by the U.S. Department of Transportation's multiple imputation model. Subramanian, R. 2002. Transitioning to multiple imputation — a new method to impute missing blood alcohol concentration (BAC) values in FARS. Report no. DOT HS-809-403. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

The following facts are based on analysis of data from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS).

Trends

The percentage of fatally injured drivers with BACs at or above 0.08 percent declined steadily from 49 percent in 1982 to 33 percent in 1994 (a 32 percent decline). About a third of fatally injured drivers have had BACs of 0.08 percent or above since 1994. Among drivers and pedestrians killed in crashes in 2012, drivers of large trucks had the lowest proportion of BACs at or above 0.08 percent (3 percent) and pedestrians ages 16 and older had the highest proportion (36 percent).

Estimated number and percent of fatally injured people with BACs ≥ 0.08 percent by type, 1982-2012
YearAll drivers Passenger vehicle drivers Large truck drivers Motorcycle drivers Pedestrians (age ≥16)
DeathsEstimated deaths with BACs ≥ 0.08DeathsEstimated deaths with BACs ≥ 0.08DeathsEstimated deaths with BACs ≥ 0.08DeathsEstimated deaths with BACs ≥ 0.08DeathsEstimated deaths with BACs ≥ 0.08
NumberNumber%NumberNumber%NumberNumber%NumberNumber%NumberNumber%
1982 24,690 12,139 49 19,664 10,024 51 735 123 17 3,723 1,810 49 5,993 2,668 45
1983 24,138 11,543 48 19,338 9,529 49 767 115 15 3,592 1,783 50 5,582 2,486 45
1984 25,589 11,499 45 20,300 9,379 46 859 107 12 3,896 1,834 47 5,755 2,439 42
1985 25,337 10,685 42 20,058 8,674 43 775 84 11 3,896 1,756 45 5,539 2,263 41
1986 26,630 11,409 43 21,503 9,396 44 736 58 8 3,790 1,772 47 5,547 2,242 40
1987 26,833 11,058 41 22,157 9,343 42 686 53 8 3,409 1,499 44 5,597 2,176 39
1988 27,253 11,103 41 22,884 9,580 42 743 66 9 3,139 1,338 43 5,701 2,162 38
1989 26,389 10,637 40 22,554 9,200 41 681 68 10 2,682 1,233 46 5,557 2,186 39
1990 25,750 10,395 40 21,953 8,973 41 570 50 9 2,790 1,235 44 5,488 2,137 39
1991 23,930 9,485 40 20,551 8,242 40 550 39 7 2,404 1,059 44 4,880 1,895 39
1992 22,584 8,452 37 19,573 7,434 38 506 26 5 2,079 873 42 4,734 1,861 39
1993 23,142 8,322 36 20,036 7,328 37 504 26 5 2,120 825 39 4,740 1,856 39
1994 23,691 7,913 33 20,647 7,083 34 545 36 7 1,995 663 33 4,637 1,718 37
1995 24,390 8,307 34 21,457 7,488 35 546 31 6 1,939 664 34 4,783 1,793 37
1996 24,534 8,175 33 21,631 7,336 34 525 34 6 1,881 683 36 4,670 1,804 39
1997 24,667 7,843 32 21,711 7,069 33 616 19 3 1,878 622 33 4,621 1,638 35
1998 24,743 7,834 32 21,627 6,944 32 628 30 5 2,026 716 35 4,597 1,678 37
1999 25,257 7,918 31 21,899 6,994 32 631 28 4 2,223 736 33 4,325 1,646 38
2000 25,567 8,166 32 21,819 7,127 33 641 28 4 2,591 847 33 4,192 1,534 37
2001 25,869 8,252 32 21,862 7,205 33 591 22 4 2,886 853 30 4,368 1,558 36
2002 26,659 8,515 32 22,537 7,381 33 582 38 7 2,952 940 32 4,367 1,584 36
2003 26,779 8,354 31 22,200 7,120 32 608 23 4 3,358 1,010 30 4,298 1,560 36
2004 26,871 8,155 30 21,952 6,952 32 624 24 4 3,593 995 28 4,237 1,528 36
2005 27,491 8,489 31 21,953 7,104 32 663 22 3 4,142 1,141 28 4,458 1,559 35
2006 27,348 8,578 31 21,592 7,164 33 678 30 4 4,387 1,179 27 4,384 1,656 38
2007 26,570 8,617 32 20,542 7,057 34 663 17 3 4,740 1,328 28 4,305 1,587 37
2008 24,254 7,961 33 18,266 6,280 34 534 19 4 4,782 1,436 30 4,069 1,545 38
2009 21,835 7,213 33 16,834 5,791 34 399 16 4 3,987 1,191 30 3,811 1,401 37
2010 21,072 6,579 31 16,029 5,177 32 426 17 4 4,022 1,152 29 3,989 1,410 35
2011 20,815 6,524 31 15,561 5,064 33 493 9 2 4,120 1,247 30 4,183 1,549 37
2012 21,394 6,688 31 15,842 5,180 33 526 14 3 4,355 1,246 29 4,431 1,592 36

The percentage of fatally injured drivers with BACs of 0.15 percent or higher has declined 34 percent since 1982 but with little change since 1996. Twenty-five percent of passenger vehicle drivers killed in 2012 had BACs at or above 0.15 percent compared with 19 percent of fatally injured motorcycle drivers. A higher percentage of pedestrians (28 percent) killed in crashes had BACs at or above 0.15 percent than did any group of drivers.

Estimated number and percent of fatally injured people with BACs ≥ 0.15 percent by type, 1982-2012
YearAll drivers Passenger vehicle drivers Large truck drivers Motorcycle drivers Pedestrians (age ≥16)
DeathsEstimated deaths with BACs ≥ 0.15DeathsEstimated deaths with BACs ≥ 0.15DeathsEstimated deaths with BACs ≥ 0.15DeathsEstimated deaths with BACs ≥ 0.15DeathsEstimated deaths with BACs ≥ 0.15
NumberNumber%NumberNumber%NumberNumber%NumberNumber%NumberNumber%
1982 24,690 8,660 35 19,664 7,328 37 735 75 10 3,723 1,136 30 5,993 2,077 35
1983 24,138 8,240 34 19,338 6,969 36 767 79 10 3,592 1,115 31 5,582 1,945 35
1984 25,589 8,203 32 20,300 6,864 34 859 70 8 3,896 1,136 29 5,755 1,886 33
1985 25,337 7,521 30 20,058 6,269 31 775 55 7 3,896 1,085 28 5,539 1,732 31
1986 26,630 8,077 30 21,503 6,783 32 736 34 5 3,790 1,144 30 5,547 1,730 31
1987 26,833 7,968 30 22,157 6,854 31 686 34 5 3,409 966 28 5,597 1,735 31
1988 27,253 8,114 30 22,884 7,126 31 743 45 6 3,139 862 27 5,701 1,688 30
1989 26,389 7,774 29 22,554 6,847 30 681 49 7 2,682 791 29 5,557 1,706 31
1990 25,750 7,631 30 21,953 6,670 30 570 32 6 2,790 824 30 5,488 1,697 31
1991 23,930 7,014 29 20,551 6,192 30 550 24 4 2,404 697 29 4,880 1,512 31
1992 22,584 6,258 28 19,573 5,569 28 506 17 3 2,079 590 28 4,734 1,474 31
1993 23,142 6,104 26 20,036 5,494 27 504 14 3 2,120 505 24 4,740 1,499 32
1994 23,691 5,849 25 20,647 5,326 26 545 27 5 1,995 411 21 4,637 1,355 29
1995 24,390 6,018 25 21,457 5,495 26 546 19 3 1,939 415 21 4,783 1,394 29
1996 24,534 5,925 24 21,631 5,383 25 525 18 4 1,881 440 23 4,670 1,433 31
1997 24,667 5,668 23 21,711 5,164 24 616 14 2 1,878 400 21 4,621 1,329 29
1998 24,743 5,692 23 21,627 5,127 24 628 23 4 2,026 449 22 4,597 1,332 29
1999 25,257 5,678 22 21,899 5,108 23 631 22 3 2,223 440 20 4,325 1,292 30
2000 25,567 5,801 23 21,819 5,138 24 641 10 2 2,591 539 21 4,192 1,204 29
2001 25,869 5,976 23 21,862 5,328 24 591 17 3 2,886 522 18 4,368 1,232 28
2002 26,659 6,146 23 22,537 5,463 24 582 23 4 2,952 564 19 4,367 1,267 29
2003 26,779 6,010 22 22,200 5,258 24 608 15 2 3,358 609 18 4,298 1,254 29
2004 26,871 5,837 22 21,952 5,089 23 624 16 2 3,593 614 17 4,237 1,195 28
2005 27,491 6,073 22 21,953 5,220 24 663 14 2 4,142 684 17 4,458 1,246 28
2006 27,348 6,101 22 21,592 5,248 24 678 18 3 4,387 698 16 4,384 1,324 30
2007 26,570 6,275 24 20,542 5,272 26 663 11 2 4,740 841 18 4,305 1,269 29
2008 24,254 5,844 24 18,266 4,792 26 534 13 3 4,782 891 19 4,069 1,243 31
2009 21,835 5,219 24 16,834 4,324 26 399 12 3 3,987 727 18 3,811 1,115 29
2010 21,072 4,881 23 16,029 3,964 25 426 10 2 4,022 736 18 3,989 1,141 29
2011 20,815 4,705 23 15,561 3,804 24 493 4 1 4,120 759 18 4,183 1,228 29
2012 21,394 4,962 23 15,842 3,972 25 526 11 2 4,355 808 19 4,431 1,248 28

Age and gender

Among fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers in 2012, a higher proportion of males than females had BACs at or above 0.08 percent at every age. Overall 38 percent of males and 20 percent of females had BACs at or above 0.08 percent. The percentages were highest among males ages 21-40. The lowest percentages were observed among drivers older than 70 among both men and women. Drivers younger than age 21 who were killed in crashes had far lower percentages of BACs of 0.08 percent or greater than drivers ages 21-30 who died: 27 percent versus 48 percent in 2012.

Estimated number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with BACs ≥ 0.08 percent by driver age and gender, 2012
AgeMale Female Total*
Drivers killedEstimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08Drivers killedEstimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08Drivers killedEstimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08
NumberNumber%NumberNumber%NumberNumber%
16-20 1,138 350 31 481 84 17 1,619 434 27
21-30 2,724 1,455 53 1,008 333 33 3,732 1,788 48
31-40 1,749 920 53 638 183 29 2,387 1,104 46
41-50 1,530 700 46 647 162 25 2,177 862 40
51-60 1,498 492 33 690 115 17 2,188 606 28
61-70 1,103 207 19 483 39 8 1,586 246 16
>70 1,411 108 8 703 25 4 2,114 133 6
Total* 11,182 4,237 38 4,658 943 20 15,842 5,180 33

Among fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers in 2012, 29 percent of males and 15 percent of females had BACs at or above 0.15 percent.

Estimated number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with BACs ≥ 0.15 percent by driver age and gender, 2012
AgeMale Female Total*
Drivers killedEstimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.15Drivers killedEstimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.15Drivers killedEstimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.15
NumberNumber%NumberNumber%NumberNumber%
16-20 1,138 218 19 481 49 10 1,619 267 16
21-30 2,724 1,132 42 1,008 246 24 3,732 1,378 37
31-40 1,749 739 42 638 143 22 2,387 882 37
41-50 1,530 577 38 647 129 20 2,177 706 32
51-60 1,498 383 26 690 83 12 2,188 465 21
61-70 1,103 154 14 483 30 6 1,586 184 12
>70 1,411 69 5 703 15 2 2,114 85 4
Total* 11,182 3,275 29 4,658 697 15 15,842 3,972 25

Since the 1980s the percentage of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with BACs at or above 0.08 percent has declined more among 16-20 year-olds than among older drivers, but declines have leveled off for all ages. The percentage of fatally injured 16-20 year-old passenger vehicle drivers with BACs at or above 0.08 percent now is substantially lower than drivers ages 21-50.

Estimated number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with BACs ≥ 0.08 percent by driver age, 1982-2012
Year16-20 years21-30 years31-40 years41-50 years>50 years
Drivers killedEstimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08Drivers killedEstimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08Drivers killedEstimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08Drivers killedEstimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08Drivers killedEstimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08
NumberNumber%NumberNumber%NumberNumber%NumberNumber%NumberNumber%
1982 3,456 1,826 53 6,244 3,948 63 3,352 1,980 59 1,935 1,023 53 4,574 1,206 26
1983 3,326 1,681 51 6,053 3,859 64 3,383 1,982 59 1,847 853 46 4,615 1,108 24
1984 3,441 1,595 46 6,413 3,885 61 3,549 1,892 53 1,949 890 46 4,839 1,077 22
1985 3,227 1,260 39 6,263 3,659 58 3,430 1,842 54 2,071 914 44 4,940 957 19
1986 3,636 1,495 41 6,695 3,974 59 3,801 1,997 53 2,007 896 45 5,234 994 19
1987 3,630 1,315 36 6,802 3,975 58 4,049 2,151 53 2,128 896 42 5,402 968 18
1988 3,788 1,358 36 6,819 3,991 59 4,130 2,200 53 2,400 1,011 42 5,615 992 18
1989 3,536 1,225 35 6,475 3,675 57 4,130 2,168 52 2,558 1,100 43 5,713 1,004 18
1990 3,397 1,198 35 6,152 3,510 57 4,135 2,263 55 2,519 1,045 41 5,620 930 17
1991 3,021 1,044 35 5,623 3,183 57 3,831 2,111 55 2,479 1,049 42 5,491 833 15
1992 2,697 829 31 5,122 2,759 54 3,734 1,993 53 2,416 970 40 5,489 860 16
1993 2,805 795 28 5,065 2,658 52 3,826 2,003 52 2,475 975 39 5,737 873 15
1994 2,990 800 27 4,975 2,484 50 3,858 1,923 50 2,631 1,024 39 6,036 824 14
1995 2,983 725 24 5,081 2,585 51 4,118 2,090 51 2,854 1,147 40 6,275 918 15
1996 3,026 769 25 4,989 2,475 50 4,061 1,984 49 2,937 1,137 39 6,480 949 15
1997 3,036 774 25 4,775 2,275 48 3,913 1,947 50 2,994 1,124 38 6,870 934 14
1998 3,094 767 25 4,577 2,222 49 3,912 1,831 47 3,140 1,184 38 6,787 915 13
1999 3,261 849 26 4,653 2,260 49 3,821 1,799 47 3,131 1,176 38 6,918 891 13
2000 3,250 844 26 4,706 2,268 48 3,724 1,767 47 3,255 1,268 39 6,764 963 14
2001 3,247 823 25 4,735 2,358 50 3,643 1,700 47 3,300 1,334 40 6,847 972 14
2002 3,452 873 25 4,938 2,462 50 3,678 1,696 46 3,449 1,360 39 6,879 964 14
2003 3,260 858 26 4,852 2,308 48 3,453 1,534 44 3,420 1,352 40 7,084 1,044 15
2004 3,175 815 26 4,970 2,372 48 3,333 1,414 42 3,438 1,276 37 6,918 1,053 15
2005 2,985 734 25 5,067 2,492 49 3,372 1,526 45 3,358 1,290 38 7,079 1,036 15
2006 3,020 831 28 5,159 2,535 49 3,288 1,511 46 3,263 1,216 37 6,770 1,052 16
2007 2,728 766 28 5,028 2,592 52 2,992 1,408 47 3,060 1,211 40 6,645 1,056 16
2008 2,292 626 27 4,388 2,327 53 2,656 1,300 49 2,718 1,068 39 6,154 940 15
2009 2,049 609 30 3,870 2,020 52 2,399 1,127 47 2,623 1,107 42 5,847 923 16
2010 1,675 438 26 3,697 1,816 49 2,414 1,086 45 2,312 914 40 5,887 914 16
2011 1,722 488 28 3,612 1,747 48 2,230 987 44 2,218 871 39 5,745 962 17
2012 1,619 434 27 3,732 1,788 48 2,387 1,104 46 2,177 862 40 5,888 986 17

When alcohol-impaired crashes occur

Alcohol involvement in fatal crashes peaks at night. Between 9 p.m. and 6 a.m., 58 percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers in 2012 had BACs at or above 0.08 percent, compared with 19 percent during other hours.

Estimated number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with high BACs by nightime vs. other times, 2012
Time of day Drivers killedEstimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.15
NumberNumber%Number%
9 p.m. - 6 a.m. 5,487 3,194 58 2,471 45
Other hours 10,355 1,986 19 1,501 14
Total 15,842 5,180 33 3,972 25

The three-hour period with the highest percentage of driver fatalities with BACs of 0.08 percent or higher is midnight to 3 a.m.

Estimated number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with high BACs by time of day, 2012
Time of day Drivers killedEstimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.15
NumberNumber%Number%
Midnight - 3 a.m. 2,120 1,450 68 1,154 54
3 a.m. - 6 a.m. 1,468 783 53 578 39
6 a.m. - 9 a.m. 1,796 278 15 195 11
9 a.m. - noon 1,759 138 8 104 6
Noon - 3 p.m. 2,135 256 12 183 9
3 p.m. - 6 p.m. 2,448 475 19 366 15
6 p.m. - 9 p.m. 2,061 753 37 592 29
9 p.m. - midnight 1,899 960 51 740 39
Total* 15,842 5,180 33 3,972 25

Forty-six percent of passenger vehicle drivers fatally injured on weekends (6 p.m. Friday to 6 a.m. Monday) in 2012 had BACs at or above 0.08 percent, compared with 24 percent at other times.

Estimated number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with high BACs by weekend vs. other times, 2012
Drivers killedEstimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.15
NumberNumber%Number%
Weekend (6 p.m. Friday - 6 a.m. Monday) 6,237 2,865 46 2,205 35
Other times 9,605 2,315 24 1,767 18
Total 15,842 5,180 33 3,972 25

Alcohol involvement is very high in fatal nighttime (9 p.m. to 6 a.m.) single-vehicle crashes. In 2012, 67 percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers in these crashes had BACs at or above 0.08 percent, and 52 percent had BACs at or above 0.15 percent. Five percent had BACs of 0.01 to 0.07 percent.

Estimated number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers by BAC, time, and crash type, 2012
Drivers killedEstimated drivers killed with BACs = 0Estimated drivers killed with 0.01 ≤ BACs ≤ 0.07Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.15
NumberNumber%Number%Number%Number%
Single vehicle Night 3,753 1,065 28 188 5 2,500 67 1,941 52
Day 4,614 3,075 67 183 4 1,356 29 1,064 23
Multiple vehicleNight 1,734 941 54 99 6 694 40 530 31
Day 5,585 4,877 87 164 3 544 10 376 7

References