California

To get a learners license you must:
Have a minimum age of 15, 6 months1
Before getting a license or restricted license you must:
Have a mandatory holding period of 6 months
Have a minimum supervised driving time of 50 hours, 10 of which must be at night
Have a minimum age of 161
Restrictions during intermediate or restricted license stage:
Nighttime restrictions 11 p.m.-5 a.m. secondary enforcement
Passenger restrictions (family members excepted unless otherwise noted) no passengers younger than 20 (limited exception for immediate family) secondary enforcement
Minimum age at which restrictions may be lifted:
Nighttime restrictions 12 months after initial license (min. age: 17)
Passenger restrictions 12 months after initial license (min. age: 17)

1In California, students enrolled in driver education may drive while supervised by an instructor. License applicants who do not take driver education must wait until age 18 for a license. They are not required to go through an intermediate license stage.