Driving carries extra risk for them.
This calculator uses Institute research to show how changes to state provisions might affect collision claims and fatal crash rates among young drivers. For every state and D.C., the Institute has estimated the effects of strengthening or weakening five key graduated driver licensing provisions: permit age, practice driving hours, license age and night driving and passenger restrictions. The projections are based
on research showing what matters most when it comes to preventing fatal crashes and collision claims among teen drivers.
Graduated driver licensing laws and insurance collision claims frequencies of teenage drivers
Graduated licensing laws and fatal crashes of teenage drivers: a national study
Find out more about calculator methodology.
Overall estimates are based on the combination of
the individual GDL component
effects shown below.
The first step to becoming a licensed driver is a learner permit. In this stage,
teens can only drive with adult supervision. States can reduce teens’ fatal crashes by raising the minimum permit age.
Minimum permit age ranges from 14 years to
16 years across the United States.
Most states require a minimum number of supervised hours behind the wheel before progressing from the
learner stage to an intermediate license.
Requiring more practice hours reduces the number of collision claims filed for novice drivers.
Across the United States, required practice amounts range from
0 hours to
The older teens are when they first become eligible for a license, the fewer fatal crashes there are.
Increasing this minimum age is a proven way to reduce crashes and deaths among young drivers.
Minimum license age ranges from 14 years 3 months to
17 years across the United States.
Most states restrict teens in the intermediate stage of licensure from
driving without adult supervision at night. Starting times vary. Restrictions that start at 9 p.m. reduce teen
driver fatal crash rates an estimated 18 percent and collision claim frequencies an estimated 8 percent, compared
with no restriction.
Night driving start times range from 1 a.m. to 8 p.m. Restrictions in some states vary by the time of year.
When a beginning driver travels with other teens in the car, the risk of a fatal crash increases. Most
states limit the number of passengers that may ride along with intermediate-stage drivers without adult supervision.
When teen passengers are prohibited, 15-to-17-year-old drivers’ fatal crash rates are 21 percent lower than when two or more are allowed.
Allowing only one teen passenger reduces the rate 7 percent.
©1996-2016, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Highway Loss Data Institute | www.iihs.org
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