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IIHS research bibliography

IIHS has been conducting research for more than 50 years. Papers published in copyrighted publications such as books, journals and conference proceedings are available upon request, but their contents may not be redistributed or republished without consent of the publishers. Unpublished and noncopyrighted reports are available for download, and their contents may be redistributed and republished with attribution.

  • Effect on fatality risk of changing from secondary to primary seat belt enforcement

    Farmer, Charles M.; Williams, Allan F.
    Journal of Safety Research
    2005

    Abstract
  • The role of enforcement programs in increasing seat belt use

    Williams, Allan F.; Wells, JoAnn K.
    Journal of Safety Research
    June 2004

    Abstract
  • "Buckle Up NOW!": an enforcement program to achieve high belt use

    Williams, Allan F.; Wells, JoAnn K.; McCartt, Anne T.; Preusser, David F.
    Journal of Safety Research
    Winter 2000

    Abstract
  • Belt use rates among taxicab drivers in a jurisdiction with license points for nonuse

    Ferguson, Susan A.; Wells, JoAnn K.; Williams, Allan F.; Feldman, Amy F.
    Journal of Safety Research
    Summer 1999

    Abstract
  • Characteristics and opinions of North Carolina residents cited for not using seat belts

    Williams, Allan F.; Wells, JoAnn K.; Reinfurt, Donald W.
    Journal of Traffic Medicine
    1997

    Abstract
  • Increasing seat belt use in North Carolina

    Williams, Allan F.; Reinfurt, Donald W.; Wells, JoAnn K.
    Journal of Safety Research
    Spring 1996

    Abstract
  • Occupant protection

    Hurley, Charles
    Where We Go from Here -- A Pacific Northwest Regional Symposium on Reducing Motor Vehicle-Related Injury
    1996

    Abstract
  • Development and evaluation of pilot programs to increase seat belt use in North Carolina

    Williams, Allan F.; Hall, William L.; Tolbert, William G.; Wells, JoAnn K.
    Journal of Safety Research
    Fall 1994

    Abstract
  • Safety belt use in New Hampshire

    Williams, Allan F.; Wells, JoAnn K.
    Journal of Safety Research
    Fall 1992

    Abstract
  • Enforcing alcohol-impaired driving and seat belt use laws, Binghamton, New York

    Wells, JoAnn K.; Preusser, David F.; Williams, Allan F.
    Journal of Safety Research
    1992

    Abstract
  • Motor vehicle crash injury patterns and the Virginia seat belt law

    Lestina, Diane C.; Williams, Allan F.; Lund, Adrian K.; Zador, Paul L.; Kuhlman, Thomas P.
    Journal of the American Medical Association
    March 20, 1991

    Abstract
  • Coverage gaps in seat-belt use laws

    Wells, JoAnn K.; Williams, Allan F.; Fields, Michele
    American Journal of Public Health
    March 1989

    Abstract
  • Special publicity and enforcement of California's belt use law: making a 'secondary' law work

    Lund, Adrian K.; Stuster, Jack; Fleming, Anne
    Journal of Criminal Justice
    1989

    Abstract
  • Repeal of the Massachusetts seat belt law

    Hingson, Ralph; Levenson, Suzetter Morelock; Heeren, Timothy; Mangione, Thomas; Rodgers, Cynthia; Schiavonne, Terrance; Hertz, Robin P.
    American Journal of Public Health
    May 1988

    Abstract
  • Seat belt use laws in the United States: trends and prospects

    O'Neill, Brian
    Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
    September-October 1988

    Abstract
  • Belt use by high-risk drivers before and after New York's seat belt use law

    Preusser, David F.; Lund, Adrian K.; Williams, Allan F.; Blomberg, Richard D.
    Accident Analysis and Prevention
    1988

    Abstract
  • Mandatory seat belt use laws and occupant crash protection in the United States: present status and future prospects

    Williams, Allan F.; Lund, Adrian K.
    Preventing Automobile Injury, ch. 3
    1988

    Abstract
  • Motor vehicle occupant fatalities in four states with seat belt use laws

    Lund, Adrian K.; Zador, Paul L; Pollner, Jessica
    SAE Technical Paper Series 870224
    December 1987

    Abstract
  • Seat belt use law enforcement and publicity in Elmira, New York: a reminder campaign

    Williams, Allan F.; Preusser, David F.; Blomberg, Richard D.; Lund, Adrian K.
    American Journal of Public Health
    November 1987

    Abstract
  • Attitudes toward the California seat belt use law following a special enforcement and publicity program

    Opinion Research Corporation
    Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
    February 1987

    Abstract
  • Preliminary estimates of the effects of mandatory seat belt use laws

    Lund, Adrian K.; Pollner, Jessica; Williams, Allan F.
    Accident Analysis and Prevention
    1987

    Abstract
  • Results of a seat belt use law enforcement and publicity campaign in Elmira, New York

    Williams, Allan F.; Lund, Adrian K.; Preusser, David F.; Blomberg, Richard D.
    Accident Analysis and Prevention
    1987

    Abstract
  • Shoulder belt use in four states with belt use laws

    Williams, Allan F.; Wells, JoAnn K; Lund, Adrian K.
    Accident Analysis and Prevention
    1987

    Abstract
  • Seat belt use laws and occupant crash protection in the United States

    Williams, Allan F.; Lund, Adrian K.
    American Journal of Public Health
    December 1986

    Abstract
  • Early results of seat belt legislation in the United States of America

    Campbell B J; Stewart, Richard J.; Campbell, Frances A.
    Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
    July, 1986

    Abstract
  • Mandatory belt use and driver risk taking: an empirical evaluation of the risk-compensation hypothesis

    O'Neill, Brian; Lund, Adrian K.; Zador, Paul L.; Ashton, Steven J.
    Human Behavior and Traffic Safety
    1985

    Abstract
  • Mandatory belt use and driver risk taking

    Lund, Adrian K.; Zador, Paul L.
    Risk Analysis
    1984

    Abstract
  • Patterns of safety belt usage following introduction of a safety belt wearing law (Israel paper)

    Hakkert, A.S.; Zaidel, D.M.; Sarelle, E.
    Accident Analysis and Prevention
    1981

    Abstract
  • Observed daytime seat-belt use in Vancouver before and after the British Columbia belt-use law

    Williams, Allan F.; Robertson, Leon S.
    Canadian Journal of Public Health
    September/October 1979

    Abstract
  • Seat belt laws: implications for occupant protection

    Williams, Allan F.; O'Neill, Brian
    SAE Technical Paper Series 790683
    1979

    Abstract
  • Automobile seat belt use in selected countries, states and provinces with and without laws requiring belt use

    Robertson, Leon S.
    Accident Analysis and Prevention
    March 1978

    Abstract
  • The seat belt use law in Ontario: effects on actual use

    Robertson, Leon S.
    Canadian Journal of Public Health
    March/April 1978

    Abstract
  • Some international comparisons of the effects of motor vehicle seat belt use and child restraint laws

    Robertson, Leon S.; Williams, Allan F.
    Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
    1978

    Abstract
  • The effectiveness of compulsory wearing of seat-belts in casualty reduction

    Foldvary, L.A.; Lane, J.C.
    Accident Analysis and Prevention
    September 1974

    Abstract
  • Seat belts for Victoria (letter to the editor)

    Foldvary, L.A.; Lane, J.C.
    The Medical Journal of Australia
    May 13, 1972

    Abstract
  • Seat belt use among African Americans, Hispanics, and Whites

    Wells, JoAnn K.; Williams, Allan F.; Farmer, Charles M.
    Accident Analysis and Prevention
    July 2002

    Abstract
  • Seat belt use: where we've been, where we are, and what's next

    O'Neill, Brian
    2001 Seat Belt Summit: Policy Options for Increasing Seat Belt Use in the United States in 2001 and Beyond
    January 2001

    Abstract
  • Seat belt use and alcohol-impaired driving: behavior and attitudes in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    Williams, Allan F.
    Proceedings of the Road Safety Research, Policing, and Education Conference
    November 2000

    Abstract
  • Driver seat belt use at border crossings

    Beirness, Douglas J.; des Groseilliers, Manon; Williams, Allan F.; Ferguson, Susan A.
    Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
    September 2000

    Abstract
  • Self-reported seat belt use in four countries: a telephone survey

    Cammisa, Michael X.; Williams, Allan F.; Ferguson, Susan A.
    Journal of Crash Prevention and Injury Control
    August 2000

    Abstract
  • Use of a community program to increase seat belt use among shopping center patrons in Charlotte, North Carolina

    Wells, JoAnn K.; Malenfant, J.E. Louis; Williams, Allan F.; Van Houten, Ron
    Journal of Safety Research
    Summer 2000

    Abstract
  • Characteristics of drivers not using seat belts in a high belt use state

    Reinfurt, Donald W.; Williams, Allan F.; Wells, JoAnn K.; Rodgman, Eric
    Journal of Safety Research
    Winter 1996

    Abstract
  • The use of feedback signs to increase observed daytime seat belt use in two cities in North Carolina

    Malenfant, J.E. Louis; Wells, JoAnn K.; Van Houten, Ron; Williams, Allan F.
    Accident Analysis and Prevention
    1996

    Abstract
  • Seat belt use in air-bag-equipped cars: 1986-92 models

    Wells, JoAnn K.; Williams, Allan F.
    Journal of Safety Research
    Summer 1993

    Abstract
  • Characteristics of belted and unbelted drivers

    Preusser, David F.; Williams, Allan F.; Lund, Adrian K.
    Accident Analysis and Prevention
    1991

    Abstract
  • Seat belt use in cars with air bags

    Williams, Allan F.; Wells, JoAnn K.; Lund, Adrian K.
    American Journal of Public Health
    December 1990

    Abstract
  • Seat belt use on interstate highways

    Wells, JoAnn K.; Williams, Allan F.; Lund, Adrian K.
    American Journal of Public Health
    June 1990

    Abstract
  • Evaluation of a program to increase belt use on the New York Thruway

    Williams, Allan F.; Preusser, David F.; Lund, Adrian K.
    Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
    April 1990

    Abstract
  • Improper shoulder belt use by Maryland drivers

    Ciccone, Michael A.; Wells, JoAnn K.
    Human Factors
    June 1988

    Abstract
  • A comparison of rates of fatal ejection from manual and automatic belt cars

    Esterlitz, Joy R.
    Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
    1987

    Abstract
  • Seat belt use among New York bar patrons

    Preusser, David F.; Williams, Allan F.; Lund, Adrian K.
    Journal of Public Health Policy
    Winter 1986

    Abstract
  • Voluntary seat belt use among U.S. drivers: geographic, socioeconomic, and demographic variation

    Lund, Adrian K.
    Accident Analysis and Prevention
    February 1986

    Abstract
  • Passenger car size and driver seat belt use

    O'Neill, Brian; Williams, Allan F.; Karpf, Ronald S.
    American Journal of Public Health
    May 1983

    Abstract
  • Rejoinder to Peltzman

    Robertson, Leon S.
    The Journal of Economic Issues
    September 1977

    Abstract
  • Auto industry belt use campaign fails

    Robertson, Leon S.
    Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
    August 1977

    Abstract
  • The great seat belt campaign flop

    Robertson, Leon S.
    Journal of Communication
    Autumn 1976

    Abstract
  • Belt use in 1975 cars: initial data from one metropolitan area

    Robertson, Leon S.
    Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
    May 1975

    Abstract
  • A controlled study of the effect of television messages on safety belt use

    Robertson, Leon S.; Kelley, Albert B.; O'Neill, Brian; Wixom, Charles W.; Eiswirth, Richard S.; Haddon, William Jr.
    American Journal of Public Health
    November 1974

    Abstract
  • Factors associated with observed safety belt use

    Robertson, Leon S.; O'Neill, Brian; Wixom, Charles W
    Journal of Health and Social Behavior
    March 1972

    Abstract
  • Buckle up or slow down revisited: results that don't stand the test of time

    Greene, Michael A.; Levy, David T.
    Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
    May 1995

    Abstract
  • Automobile driver fatalities in frontal impacts: air bags compared with manual belts

    Zador, Paul L.; Ciccone, Michael A.
    American Journal of Public Health
    May 1993

    Abstract
  • The effects of restraint use and mass in "downsized" cars

    Jones, Ian S.; Whitfield, Randy A.
    SAE Technical Paper Series 840199
    1984

    Abstract
  • Estimates of motor vehicle seat belt effectiveness and use: implications for occupant crash protection

    Robertson, Leon S.
    American Journal of Public Health
    September 1976

    Abstract
  • Air bags and lap/shoulder belts -- a comparison of their effectiveness in real world frontal crashes

    Mohan, Dinesh; Zador, Paul L.; O'Neill, Brian; Ginsburg, Marvin J.
    Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the American Association for Automotive Medicine
    1976

    Abstract
  • Are 1974-1975 automotive-belt systems hazardous to children?

    Snyder, Richard G.; O'Neill, Brian
    American Journal of Diseases of Children
    August 1975

    Abstract
  • Comparative injuries to belted and unbelted drivers of subcompact, compact, intermediate, and standard cars

    Campbell, B.J.; O' Neill, Brian; Tingley, B.
    Proceedings of the Third International Congress on Automotive Safety
    March 1975

    Abstract
  • Seat belt usage and benefits in North Carolina accidents

    Council, Forrest M.; Hunter, William W.
    Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
    July 1974

    Abstract
  • Spinal cord injuries and seat belts

    Burke, David C.
    The Medical Journal of Australia
    October 27, 1973

    Abstract
  • Effectiveness of lap seat belts and the energy-absorbing steering systems in reduction of injuries

    Levine, Donald N.; Campbell, B.J.
    Journal of Safety Research
    1972

    Abstract
  • Experimental comparison of trauma in lateral (+Gy), rearward facing (+Gx), and forward facing (-Gx) body orientation when restrained by lap belt only

    Snyder, Richard G.; Snow, Clyde C.; Young, Joseph W.; Price, George T.; Hanson, Peter
    Aerospace Medicine
    September 1967

    Abstract
  • Serious trauma to car occupants wearing seat belts

    MacKay, G.M.; Gloyns, P.F.; Hayes, H.R.M.; Griffiths, D.K.; Rattenbury, S.J.
    Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
    undated

    Abstract
  • Drivers’ attitudes toward front or rear child passenger belt use and seat belt reminders at these seating positions

    Kidd, David G.; McCartt, Anne T.
    Traffic Injury Prevention
    April 2014

    Abstract
  • Attitudes toward seat belt use and in-vehicle technologies for encouraging belt use

    Kidd, David G.; McCartt, Anne T.; Oesch, Nathan J.
    Traffic Injury Prevention
    January 2014

    Abstract
  • Response of part-time belt users to enhanced seat belt reminder systems of different duty cycles and duration

    Kidd, David G.
    Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
    September 2012

    Abstract
  • Effect of enhanced seat belt reminders on driver fatality risk

    Farmer, Charles M.; Wells, JoAnn K.
    Journal of Safety Research
    February 2010

    Abstract
  • Effects of seat belt load limiters on driver fatalities in frontal crashes of passenger cars

    Brumbelow, Matthew L.; Baker, Bryan C.; Nolan, Joseph M.
    Proceedings of the 20th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (CD-ROM)
    June 2007

    Abstract
  • Effectiveness and driver acceptance of the Honda belt reminder system

    Ferguson, Susan A.; Wells, JoAnn K.; Kirley, Bevan B.
    Traffic Injury Prevention
    May 2007

    Abstract
  • Drivers' assessment of Ford's belt reminder system

    Williams, Allan F.; Wells, JoAnn K.
    Traffic Injury Prevention
    December 2003

    Abstract
  • Effectiveness of Ford’s belt reminder system in increasing seat belt use

    Williams, Allan F.; Wells, JoAnn K.; Farmer, Charles M.
    Injury Prevention
    December 2002

    Abstract
  • Use of seatbelts in cars with automatic belts

    Williams, Allan F.; Wells, JoAnn K.; Lund, Adrian K.; Teed, Nancy J.
    Public Health Reports
    March- April 1992

    Abstract
  • Survey of automatic belts in dealer showrooms

    Teed, Nancy J.
    Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
    June 1989

    Abstract
  • Observed use of automatic seat belts in 1987 cars

    Williams, Allan F.; Wells, JoAnn K.; Lund, Adrian K.; Teed, Nancy J.
    Accident Analysis and Prevention
    1989

    Abstract
  • Driver use of, and reaction to, automatic seat belts in Ford and GM cars

    Williams, Allan F.; Wells, JoAnn K.; Lund, Adrian K.
    Journal of Public Health Policy
    Summer 1988

    Abstract
  • Comment on choosing automatic restraint designs for the 1990's

    O'Neill, Brian
    Preventing Automobile Injury -- New Findings for Evaluation Research
    1988

    Abstract
  • A comparison of the automatic shoulder belt/knee bolster restraint system with the lap and shoulder belt system in VW Rabbits (final report HSRC-PR98)

    Chi, George Y.H.; Reinfurt, Donald W.
    Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
    March 31, 1981

    Abstract
  • Safety belt use in automobiles with starter-interlock and buzzer-light reminder systems

    Robertson, Leon S.
    American Journal of Public Health
    December 1975

    Abstract
  • Factors associated with safety belt use in 1974 starter-interlock-equipped cars

    Robertson, Leon S.
    Journal of Health and Social Behavior
    June 1975

    Abstract
  • The buzzer-light reminder system and safety belt use

    Robertson, Leon S.; Haddon, William Jr.
    American Journal of Public Health
    August 1974

    Abstract

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